Nous sommes heureux de vous annoncer ce mois-ci la première publication issue d’un chantier de long cours : les premiers résultats du Baromètre du bien-être au travail des personnels de l’Éducation nationale. Nous avons accompagné la DEPP dans la construction du volet « Bien-être » du questionnaire, et allons maintenant participer à l’analyse de la première vague de cette enquête, qui a vocation à être conduite tous les deux ans. Il s’agit d’une étape importante pour nous : le Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale démontre par l’exemple l’importance de mesurer le bien-être de ses agents, et les leviers d’amélioration que permet cette mesure.
Comme chaque octobre, nous avons publié les résultats de la vague de septembre de notre Tableau de bord du bien-être en France. L’image est dominée par d’importantes inquiétudes quant à la situation économique, qui se traduisent en partie par une baisse du bien-être actuel et des anticipations à moyen terme.
Le Bien-être des Français, Septembre 2022
Notre Note de conjoncture trimestrielle met en regard la baisse très marquée de l’appréciations des ménages sur la conjoncture et le repli nettement plus modeste de leur bien-être. L’inquiétude, sensible sur le niveau de vie, et en particulier chez les femmes et les moins de 45 ans, n’impacte pas encore fortement la satisfaction dans la vie en général. Les indicateurs de bien-être émotionnel restent stables, ce que vient confirmer pour la première fois les indicateurs de sentiments construits à partir des messages sur Twitter.
Mathieu Perona, « Le Bien-être des Français – Septembre 2022 », Notes de l’Observatoire du bien-être (Paris: CEPREMAP, 17 octobre 2022), https://www.cepremap.fr/2022/10/note-de-lobservatoire-du-bien-etre-n2022-12-le-bien-etre-des-francais-septembre-2022/.
Premiers résultats du Baromètre du bien-être au travail des personnels de l’Éducation nationale exerçant en établissement scolaire
La DEPP du Ministère de l’Éducation nationale a publié le 19 octobre les premiers résultats d’un baromètre sur le bien-être des personnels. Ceux-ci font apparaître une moindre satisfaction au travail des enseignantes et enseignants par rapport aux Français en emploi, et détaillent les zones d’amélioration.
Nous sommes fiers d’avoir contribué à l’élaboration du volet bien-être subjectif de ce baromètre et d’accompagner les équipes du Ministère dans leur analyse.
Émilie Radé, « Premiers résultats du Baromètre du bien-être au travail des personnels de l’Éducation nationale exerçant en établissement scolaire », Note d’information (Paris: Direction de l’Évaluation, de la Performance et de la Porspective, Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale et de la Jeunesse, 19 octobre 2022), https://www.education.gouv.fr/premiers-resultats-du-barometre-du-bien-etre-au-travail-des-personnels-de-l-education-nationale-343238.
Vous l’avez sans doute entendu, Elon Musk a récemment racheté Twitter, et annoncé des mesures qui risquent de changer très sensiblement le fonctionnement de ce réseau. Nous avons par conséquent créé des comptes sur le réseau Mastodon : Observatoire du bien-être et Cepremap.
Lu sur le web
The well-being cost of inflation inequalities
In terms of well-being, how costly is inflation? To answer this question, empirical evaluations have typically studied average inflation rates at the national level, thus disregarding the role of inflation inequalities within a country. In this paper, we relax the assumptions that heterogeneous consumers face homogeneous inflation rates, and study the correlation between price changes and self-reported satisfaction with living standards. We use newly available data from France, and adopt two approaches. First, we focus on individually perceived inflation and use the internationally harmonized Opinion Price Index as a proxy for experienced inflation. Variations in perceived inflation help predict well-being differences among consumers, even when controlling for relevant socio-demographic factors, personality traits and common method variance. We estimate their marginal impact to be higher than equivalent variations in nominal income. Second, we compare groups of consumers over time, and find that changes in the price of a good disproportionately affect the relative well-being of those who consume it. The study shows that the well-being cost of the inflation crisis would be underestimated if looking at aggregate figures only.
Alberto Prati, « The well-being cost of inflation inequalities », CEPR Discussion Paper, septembre 2022, https://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1870.pdf
The scientific value of numerical measures of human feelings
Abstract: Human feelings measured in integers (my happiness is an 8 out of 10, my pain 2 out of 6) have no objective scientific basis. They are “made-up” numbers on a scale that does not exist. Yet such data are extensively collected—despite criticism from, especially, economists—by governments and international organizations. We examine this paradox. We draw upon longitudinal information on the feelings and decisions of tens of thousands of randomly sampled citizens followed through time over four decades in three countries (n = 700,000 approximately). First, we show that a single feelings integer has greater predictive power than does a combined set of economic and social variables. Second, there is a clear inverse relationship between feelings integers and subsequent get-me-out-of-here actions (in the domain of neighborhoods, partners, jobs, and hospital visits). Third, this feelings-to-actions relationship takes a generic form, is consistently replicable, and is fairly close to linear in structure. Therefore, it seems that human beings can successfully operationalize an integer scale for feelings even though there is no true scale. How individuals are able to achieve this is not currently known. The implied scientific puzzle—an inherently cross-disciplinary one—demands attention.
Caspar Kaiser et Andrew J. Oswald, « The scientific value of numerical measures of human feelings », Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119, no 42 (18 octobre 2022): e2210412119, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2210412119.
(Mis-)Predicted Subjective Well-Being Following Life Events
Abstract: The correct prediction of how alternative states of the world affect our lives is a cornerstone of economics. We study how accurate people are in predicting their future well-being after facing major life events. Based on individual panel data, we compare people’s life satisfaction forecasts reported in the first interview after a major life event with their actual evaluations five years later on. This is done after the individuals experience widowhood, unemployment, disability, marriage, separation, or divorce. We find systematic prediction errors that seem at least partly driven by unforeseen adaptation after the first four of these events.
Reto Odermatt et Alois Stutzer, « (Mis-)Predicted Subjective Well-Being Following Life Events », Journal of the European Economic Association 17, no 1 (1 février 2019): 245‑83, https://doi.org/10.1093/jeea/jvy005.
Children and Dynamics of Life Satisfaction in Times of COVID-19
Abstract: We analyze data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, including a pre-pandemic baseline and seven survey waves between May 2020 and September 2021. Fixed effects panel regression models are run over more than 11,000 individuals, distinguishing among women and men with young children (< 5 years), older children (5-15 years), or no children in the household. We hypothesize that declines in life satisfaction during the first lockdown are sharper among parents, whose domestic demands increase, than among the childless. We develop competing hypotheses that parents might be resilient and have higher life satisfaction during the later phases (Adaptation Hypothesis) or that the pandemic stressors accumulate, leading to even lower satisfaction during (Accumulation Hypothesis). The results only support the Accumulation Hypothesis among mothers. Whereas mothers fared comparatively well during the first lockdown, further pandemic stressors have seemingly exhausted their resilience, leading to stronger declines during the winter 2020/2021 lockdown. Among men with older children and without children, life satisfaction decreased during the first and subsequent lockdowns. Men with young children were the only group with almost unchanged life satisfaction throughout the pandemic.
Angsar Hudde, Karsten Hank, et Marita Jacob, « Children and Dynamics of Life Satisfaction in Times of COVID-19 », BiB Working Paper (Wiesbaden: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 2022), https://www.bib.bund.de/Publikation/2022/Children-and-Dynamics-of-Life-Satisfaction-in-Times-of-COVID-19.html?nn=1219558.
A Meta-Analysis of Religion/Spirituality and Life Satisfaction
Abstract: Human engagement with religion and spirituality is pervasive across the world, yet the extent to which religious and/or spiritual involvement promotes well-being is controversial theoretically and empirically. In the largest meta-analysis of religion/spirituality and life satisfaction to date (k = 256, N = 666,085), an overall effect size was computed (r = .18; 95% CI .16–.19; p < .01). Five dimensions of religion/spirituality were then examined separately to gauge their relationships with life satisfaction. Each dimension of religion/spirituality was significantly and positively associated with life satisfaction: religiosity (r = .16, 95% CI .14–.17, p < .01), spirituality (r = .30, 95% CI .25–.35, p < .01), religious attendance (r = .11, 95% CI .09–.13, p < .01), religious practices (r = .14, 95% CI .10–.18, p < .01), and religious/spiritual experiences (r = .29, 95% CI .24–.33, p < .01). The overall effect was moderated by several study-related variables, with a stronger relationship found in samples with higher average age, in more recent studies, in developing nations, and in countries with a higher percentage of people who consider religion very important in their lives. The theoretical and practical implications of the meta-analysis are discussed.
David B. Yaden et al., « A Meta-Analysis of Religion/Spirituality and Life Satisfaction », Journal of Happiness Studies, 1 octobre 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00558-7.
How to Run Surveys: A Guide to Creating Your Own Identifying Variation and Revealing the Invisible
Abstract: Surveys are an essential approach for eliciting otherwise invisible factors such as perceptions, knowledge and beliefs, attitudes, and reasoning. These factors are critical determinants of social, economic, and political outcomes. Surveys are not merely a research tool. They are also not only a way of collecting data. Instead, they involve creating the process that will generate the data. This allows the researcher to create their own identifying and controlled variation. Thanks to the rise of mobile technologies and platforms, surveys offer valuable opportunities to study either broadly representative samples or focus on specific groups. This paper offers guidance on the complete survey process, from the design of the questions and experiments to the recruitment of respondents and the collection of data to the analysis of survey responses. It covers issues related to the sampling process, selection and attrition, attention and carelessness, survey question design and measurement, response biases, and survey experiments.
Stefanie Stantcheva, « How to Run Surveys: A Guide to Creating Your Own Identifying Variation and Revealing the Invisible », Working Paper, Working Paper Series (National Bureau of Economic Research, septembre 2022), https://doi.org/10.3386/w30527.
Mental Balance in 116 Nations: Where It Is Experienced and Valued
Abstract: Mental balance, defined as a sense of tranquility resulting from inner peace and harmonious interactions with the external environment, is an important but largely overlooked aspect of well-being. Using data from the Gallup World Poll (N = 121,207), this study developed a global index of mental balance and a measure of preference for mental balance (as opposed to excitement) across 116 countries. The study examined the global and regional distribution of these two variables and their intercorrelations with a variety of social, economic, cultural, and well-being variables. The results showed that, whereas national wealth and sociopolitical context were the strongest predictors of experiencing mental balance, these variables were not associated with preference for mental balance.
Mohsen Joshanloo, « Mental Balance in 116 Nations: Where It Is Experienced and Valued », International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no 19 (janvier 2022): 12457, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912457.
What is wellbeing for rural South African women? Textual analysis of focus group discussion transcripts and implications for programme design and evaluation
Abstract: Policy makers’ ultimate goal is to deliver the highest possible level of population welfare. Economists investigate the effect of socio-economic dimensions on wellbeing using unidimensional measures of life satisfaction or happiness as proxies for welfare. However, social psychologists have shown that wellbeing is a much broader construct and that an intervention may have opposite effects on its components. Unidimensional measures may hide these patterns. Most literature focuses on high-income countries. The growing evidence from low- and middle-income countries also largely relies on standard unidimensional measures. This study tests the validity of this reliance by exploring the wellbeing construct of South African women, quantitatively analysing textual data from focus group discussions to investigate whether unidimensional measures are appropriate in this context. It provides evidence against the indiscriminate use of unidimensional wellbeing measures. Cluster and correspondence analysis of the transcripts show that relevant domains of women’s wellbeing include relations with others, autonomy, and a perception of control over their environment (environmental mastery). Results also reveal that participants have a relational view of themselves, distinct from the individuated view predominant in the US and Europe and the collectivist view found in East Asia. Such relational self-perception modifies study participants’ wellbeing construct in ways that are important for policy implementation and evaluation. For example, women’s autonomy and environmental mastery rely on shared peer-identity to redefine rules and meet challenges. Wellbeing measures for policy evaluation would benefit from incorporating these insights to meaningfully measure progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3 on ‘good health and wellbeing’ in South Africa and other contexts that exhibit similar concepts of wellbeing.
Giulia Ferrari, « What is wellbeing for rural South African women? Textual analysis of focus group discussion transcripts and implications for programme design and evaluation », LSE Research Online Documents on Economics (London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library, 25 juillet 2022), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/ehllserod/115923.htm.
Does Legal Freedom Satisfy?
Abstract: Much political conflict in the world revolves around the issue of how much freedom to accord people. Liberal democracies are characterized by, e.g., the rule of law and a strong protection of civil rights, giving individuals a great deal of legally guaranteed freedom to lead their lives as they see fit. However, it is not known whether legal freedom suffices to make people satisfied with freedom. Our study explores that issue by relating seven indicators of legal freedom to the satisfaction people express with their freedom of choice. Using a sample of 133 countries over the period 2008–2018, and taking a panel-data approach, we find no robust baseline relationship. However, when exploring conditional associations by interacting the indicators with social trust and income inequality, the rule of law is positively and increasingly related to satisfaction with freedom above and below a threshold level. Freedom of assembly is more positive for satisfaction with freedom the higher the GDP per capita and in democracies. Thus, for some types of legal freedom, formal legal institutions are complementary with culture, income and the political system in generating satisfaction with freedom.
Niclas Berggren et Christian Bjørnskov, « Does Legal Freedom Satisfy? », Working Paper Series (Research Institute of Industrial Economics, 31 août 2022), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/hhsiuiwop/1436.htm.
Does the Election Winner–Loser Gap Extend to Subjective Health and Well-Being?
Abstract: Political scientists have studied extensively the gap between winners and losers of democratic elections with regard to satisfaction with democracy. We ask whether the winner–loser gap extends beyond the political domain to subjective health and well-being as well. Building on insights from biology and coalitional psychology, we hypothesize that winning and losing elections could affect one’s outlook on life, happiness, and subjective health. We comprehensively test these theoretical propositions with cross-sectional data from the 2012 and 2018 waves of the European Social Survey. We document significant gaps between winners and losers with respect to measures of subjective personal well-being. To further probe the causal nature of these winner–loser effects, we trace changes in well-being following election wins and losses using a panel dataset from the Netherlands, where we find weaker supportive evidence. Overall, our results suggest that winning and losing democratic elections can have much wider-reaching consequences than previously recognized.
Dimiter Toshkov et Honorata Mazepus, « Does the Election Winner–Loser Gap Extend to Subjective Health and Well-Being? », Political Studies Review, 3 octobre 2022, 14789299221124736, https://doi.org/10.1177/14789299221124735.
Does the association between self-focus and life satisfaction depend on the levels of perceived societal injustice?
Abstract: Previous research has shown that caring for others and prosociality are positively related to well-being, but cultural differences in the strength of the relationship between prosociality and well-being have been largely overlooked. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationship between self-focus (i.e., the attitude that one should care more about oneself than about others) and life satisfaction depends on perceived societal injustice. To probe this further, this study used Bayesian multilevel modeling and a sample of 121,207 individuals from 116 countries. Self-focus was positively associated with life satisfaction in societies perceived as unjust by their residents, whereas it was negatively associated with life satisfaction in societies with low levels of perceived societal injustice. Self-focus may protect individuals to some extent from injustice and exploitation in an unjust environment.
Mohsen Joshanloo et Behnam Soltani, « Does the Association between Self-Focus and Life Satisfaction Depend on the Levels of Perceived Societal Injustice? », Personality and Individual Differences 201 (1 février 2023): 111922, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111922.