La vague de décembre 2023 de notre enquête trimestrielle montre une stabilisation des principaux indicateurs de bien-être proches de leur moyenne, mais sur un fond d’inquiétudes persistantes. Le mois de janvier a pour nous été marqué par la parution des deux premières publications de la DEPP exploitant la deuxième vague du Baromètre du bien-être des personnels en établissement de l’éducation nationale. Elles montrent que les mauvais résultats de la première vague devaient peu à la situation de pandémie, et révèlent un profond mal-être au travail, en particulier parmi les enseignants. La rémunération est évidemment une cause essentielle, mais le manque de considération de la part du reste de la société constitue un autre point douloureux, alors que les enseignants aimeraient pour la plupart continuer d’exercer ce métier, mais doutent de leur capacité à l’exercer jusqu’à la retraite.
Le Bien-être des Français – Décembre 2023
En décembre 2023, les principaux indicateurs de bien-être subjectif en France sont à des niveaux proches de leur moyenne depuis 2016. Au-delà de la baisse saisonnière du bien-être émotionnel, la satisfaction dans la vie, le sentiment de sens et l’évaluation du niveau de vie restent stables, tandis que les craintes quant aux difficultés financières reculent.
Cependant, les perspectives d’avenir continuent de se dégrader, en particulier en ce qui concerne la prochaine génération en France, et le sentiment de sécurité recule à nouveau.
Perona, M. (2024). Le Bien-être des Français – Décembre 2023 (2024‑01; Notes de l’Observatoire du bien-être, p. 5). Cepremap. https://www.cepremap.fr/2024/01/note-de-lobservatoire-du-bien-etre-n2024-01-le-bien-etre-des-francais-decembre-2023/
Healthcare Workers and Life Satisfaction during the Pandemic
Abstract: We evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the life satisfaction of healthcare workers, as compared to the wider workforce, in five European countries. In ten waves of quarterly panel data, the life satisfaction of healthcare workers is always higher than that of other essential workers and non-essential workers. Life satisfaction follows a double humped pattern over time for all workers, which is largely explained by the COVID-19 death rate and policy stringency. The spread of the pandemic in terms of the death rate has twice as large an effect on healthcare workers’ life satisfaction; on the contrary, the latter are the only workers whose satisfaction was not affected by the stringency of lockdown policies.
Costi, Chiara & Clark, Andrew E. & Lepinteur, Anthony & D’Ambrosio, Conchita, 2023. “Healthcare Workers and Life Satisfaction during the Pandemic,” IZA Discussion Papers 16680, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
Bien-être des personnes de l’éducation nationale
Bien-être au travail des personnels de l’éducation nationale : des résultats stables en 2023
Résumé: Un an après la première édition, leurs déclarations varient peu. Ils évaluent leur satisfaction professionnelle à un niveau plus faible que les Français en emploi (5,9 contre 7,1 sur 10), mais ils sont proches de la moyenne des Français concernant la satisfaction de la vie menée actuellement et le sentiment que leur vie est porteuse de sens. Les perspectives de carrière (2,9 sur 10) et le niveau de rémunération (3,3 sur 10) constituent des sources d’insatisfaction marquée. La charge de travail est jugée trop importante au niveau de 7,4 sur 10. Les personnels ont en revanche une satisfaction supérieure à 7 sur 10 concernant leur établissement d’exercice, la sécurité au travail et les relations avec les élèves et leurs collègues. Interrogés pour la première fois en 2023, les accompagnants d’élèves en situation de handicap (AESH) expriment des niveaux de satisfaction légèrement supérieurs à ceux des autres personnels, sauf concernant la rémunération et les perspectives de carrière.
Radé, É. (2024). Bien-être au travail des personnels de l’Éducation nationale : Des résultats stables en 2023 (24.03; Note d’Information, p. 4). DEPP. https://www.education.gouv.fr/bien-etre-au-travail-des-personnels-de-l-education-nationale-des-resultats-stables-en-2023-380559
Les enseignants : des cadres au contact du public qui se sentent utiles mais en manque de reconnaissance
Résumé : Si les enseignants considèrent toujours plus souvent que les autres cadres que leurs horaires s’accordent très bien avec leurs engagements familiaux, cet avantage a diminué entre 2013 et 2019, les autres cadres s’étant rapprochés de leur situation. Moins exposé à l’insécurité économique, l’enseignement est un emploi dans lequel les personnes souhaitent massivement rester jusqu’à leur retraite et qui apporte un sentiment fort d’utilité. Les enseignants pensent pourtant moins souvent être en capacité de faire le même métier jusqu’à la retraite que les autres cadres. Ils se sentent également moins reconnus, moins soutenus par leur hiérarchie, et sont peu satisfaits de leur possibilité de promotion comparativement aux autres cadres.
Dion, É. (2024). Les enseignants : Des cadres au contact du public qui se sentent utiles mais en manque de reconnaissance (24.02; Notes de conjoncture, p. 4). DEPP. https://www.education.gouv.fr/les-enseignants-des-cadres-au-contact-du-public-qui-se-sentent-utiles-mais-en-manque-de-380556
New Frontiers in Subjective Well-being Measurement
Le 04 mars prochain, le centre WISE de l’OCDE organise une conférence afin de faire un point d’étape sur la mesure du bien-être subjectif. Programme et inscription.
Sur le Web
Does inflation matter? The influence of perceived price changes on well-being
Abstract: I confirm the foregoing state of the art for inflation and well-being correlation while filling the gap in the literature and estimating the effects of individuals’ inflation perception on well-being. I also discover the significant heterogeneity in attitudes toward inflation, inflation perception, and unemployment among European countries. Inflation measured by official statistics, as well as inflation perceived by consumers, has a significant negative influence on people’s well-being. The relation was confirmed by regressing reported life satisfaction on a wide set of individual characteristics, as well as macroeconomic variables. While the inflation perception influence on well-being in Eastern Europe is higher than the influence of HICP, for Western Europe, it is the opposite. Both country groups also differ in terms of the marginal rate of substitution between inflation and unemployment – the effects of higher unemployment are more severe in comparison to the influence of inflation in Western Europe.
Below, Łukasz, (2023), Does inflation matter? The influence of perceived price changes on well-being, No 2023-086, KAE Working Papers, Warsaw School of Economics, Collegium of Economic Analysis.
Can Little Steps Lead to Big Joy?
Le Big Joy Program du Greater Good Science Center (Berkeley) constitue un test unique des préconisations les plus populaires de la psychologie positive. Vous pouvez y prendre part, et consulter les premières analyses.
Is a Sorrow Shared a Sorrow Doubled? Parental Unemployment and the Life Satisfaction of Adolescent Children
Abstract: This paper examines possible spillover effects of parental unemployment on the subjective wellbeing of 12- to 21-year-old children. Using German panel data (SOEP), we show that unemployment of fathers and mothers is negatively associated with their children’s life satisfaction. When controlling for time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results suggest that maternal unemployment has negative effects, while no effect of fathers’ unemployment can be detected. In subgroup analyses, we do not find differential impacts between sons and daughters or between younger and older children. Further results suggest that the impact of parental unemployment differs between high- and low-unemployment regions.
Borah, Melanie, Knabe, Andreas and Lücke, Christine, (2023), Is a Sorrow Shared a Sorrow Doubled? Parental Unemployment and the Life Satisfaction of Adolescent Children, No 10776, CESifo Working Paper Series, CESifo.
Employee well-being outcomes from individual-level mental health interventions: Cross-sectional evidence from the United Kingdom
Abstract: Initiatives that promote mental well-being are formally recommended for all British workers, with many practices targeting change in individual workers’ resources. While the existing evidence is generally positive about these interventions, disagreement is increasing because of concerns that individual-level interventions do not engage with working conditions. Contributing to the debate, this article uses survey data (N = 46,336 workers in 233 organisations) to compare participants and nonparticipants in a range of common individual-level well-being interventions, including resilience training, mindfulness and well-being apps. Across multiple subjective well-being indicators, participants appear no better off. Results are interpreted through the job demands–resources theory and selection bias in cross-sectional results is interrogated. Overall, results suggest interventions are not providing additional or appropriate resources in response to job demands.
Community and wellbeing evaluation of a unique international cultural event: Liverpool’s hosting of Eurovision 2023 for Ukraine
About the paper
In May 2023, building on its rich cultural history and status as a UNESCO City Of Music, Liverpool hosted the 67th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest on behalf of 2022 winners Ukraine. The annual competition, televised internationally and organised by the European Broadcasting Union, is a cultural mega event involving over 50 countries. Anecdotally referred to as ‘the best song contest so far’, Eurovision 2023 involved communities across the city region geography, ages, genders and ethnic backgrounds. To understand the economic, cultural and wellbeing impacts of winning and delivering the fortnight, Liverpool City Council commissioned five in-depth, independent evaluations. This discussion paper is based on the final report of the community and wellbeing strand of Eurovision 2023, which aimed to enhance and nuance our understanding of what mega-events do to support communities of place and the wellbeing of individuals living there. The co-produced evaluation was funded by Spirit of 2012 and the Department for Culture Media and Sport. Here, the research team explores the community and wellbeing evaluation’s rationale, design and delivery, as well as impact findings and methodological learnings. The author highlights insights into mechanisms of subjective and community wellbeing improvement, illustrates affinities and disparities between quantitative and qualitative findings, and discusses issues related to ensuring and sustaining legacy.
Corcoran, R. (2024). Community and wellbeing evaluation of a unique international cultural event : Liverpool’s hosting of Eurovision 2023 for Ukraine. What Works Centre for Wellbeing. https://whatworkswellbeing.org/resources/community-and-wellbeing-evaluation-of-a-unique-international-cultural-event-liverpools-hosting-of-eurovision-2023-for-ukraine/
How Can People Become Happier? A Systematic Review of Preregistered Experiments
Abstract: Can happiness be reliably increased? Thousands of studies speak to this question. However, many of them were conducted during a period in which researchers commonly “p-hacked,” creating uncertainty about how many discoveries might be false positives. To prevent p-hacking, happiness researchers increasingly preregister their studies, committing to analysis plans before analyzing data. We conducted a systematic literature search to identify preregistered experiments testing strategies for increasing happiness. We found surprisingly little support for many widely recommended strategies (e.g., performing random acts of kindness). However, our review suggests that other strategies—such as being more sociable—may reliably promote happiness. We also found strong evidence that governments and organizations can improve happiness by providing underprivileged individuals with financial support. We conclude that happiness research stands on the brink of an exciting new era, in which modern best practices will be applied to develop theoretically grounded strategies that can produce lasting gains in life satisfaction.
Folk, D., & Dunn, E. (2023). A systematic review of the strength of evidence for the most commonly recommended happiness strategies in mainstream media. Nature Human Behaviour, 1‑11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-023-01651-4
Vivre et réussir sa première année dans le supérieur
Résumé : Cet article a pour objectif d’étudier le lien entre le vécu des étudiants inscrits en première année de l’enseignement supérieur et leur réussite. L’originalité de notre approche consiste à proposer une analyse différenciée entre les femmes et les hommes. Afin d’exploiter au mieux l’information disponible dans l’enquête, nous caractérisons par des analyses des correspondances multiples le vécu des étudiants selon trois dimensions : les motivations liées à leur choix de formation, la satisfaction ou les difficultés d’apprentissage ressenties et les conditions matérielles et financières dans lesquelles ils étudient. Les typologies de vécu qui en ressortent montrent des différences marquées selon le sexe. De même, des logits multinomiaux croisant ces dimensions avec la réussite en première année suggèrent que la manière dont les étudiants « vivent leurs études » marque différemment les parcours féminins et masculins dans l’enseignement supérieur.
Dumas, A. & Lignon, V. (2024). Vivre et réussir sa première année dans le supérieur: Des différences marquées selon le sexe. Éducation & formations, 106, 53-80. https://doi.org/10.48464/ef-106-03
World scientists’ warning: The behavioural crisis driving ecological overshoot
Abstract: Previously, anthropogenic ecological overshoot has been identified as a fundamental cause of the myriad symptoms we see around the globe today from biodiversity loss and ocean acidification to the disturbing rise in novel entities and climate change. In the present paper, we have examined this more deeply, and explore the behavioural drivers of overshoot, providing evidence that overshoot is itself a symptom of a deeper, more subversive modern crisis of human behaviour. We work to name and frame this crisis as ‘the Human Behavioural Crisis’ and propose the crisis be recognised globally as a critical intervention point for tackling ecological overshoot. We demonstrate how current interventions are largely physical, resource intensive, slow-moving and focused on addressing the symptoms of ecological overshoot (such as climate change) rather than the distal cause (maladaptive behaviours). We argue that even in the best-case scenarios, symptom-level interventions are unlikely to avoid catastrophe or achieve more than ephemeral progress. We explore three drivers of the behavioural crisis in depth: economic growth; marketing; and pronatalism. These three drivers directly impact the three ‘levers’ of overshoot: consumption, waste and population. We demonstrate how the maladaptive behaviours of overshoot stemming from these three drivers have been catalysed and perpetuated by the intentional exploitation of previously adaptive human impulses. In the final sections of this paper, we propose an interdisciplinary emergency response to the behavioural crisis by, amongst other things, the shifting of social norms relating to reproduction, consumption and waste. We seek to highlight a critical disconnect that is an ongoing societal gulf in communication between those that know such as scientists working within limits to growth, and those members of the citizenry, largely influenced by social scientists and industry, that must act.
Merz JJ, Barnard P, Rees WE, et al. World scientists’ warning: The behavioural crisis driving ecological overshoot. Science Progress. 2023;106(3). doi:10.1177/00368504231201372
Two Pandemic Years Greatly Reduced Young People’s Life Satisfaction: Evidence from a Comparison with Pre-COVID-19 Panel Data
Abstract: How much did young people suffer from the COVID-19 pandemic? A growing number of studies address this question, but they often lack a comparison group that was unaffected by the pandemic, and the observation window is usually short. Here, we compared the 2-year development of life satisfaction of German high school students during COVID-19 (N = 2,698) with the development in prepandemic cohorts (N = 4,834) with a difference-in-differences design. We found a decline in life satisfaction in winter 2020/2021 (Cohen’s d = -0.40) that was approximately three times stronger than that in the general population and persisted until winter 2021/2022. Young people found some restrictions particularly burdensome, especially travel restrictions, bans on cultural events, and the closure of bars/clubs.
Neugebauer, Martin, Patzina, Alexander, Dietrich, Hans and Sandner, Malte, (2023), Two Pandemic Years Greatly Reduced Young People’s Life Satisfaction: Evidence from a Comparison with Pre-COVID-19 Panel Data, No 16636, IZA Discussion Papers, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
Not all types of nature have an equal effect on urban residents’ well-being: A structural equation model approach
Abstract: A growing amount of research shows a positive association between urban nature and urban residents’ psychological and physical well-being and quality of life. With its focus on specific dimensions of well-being and reliance either on large-scale objective data sets or experimental and comparative designs, prior research does not explicitly address the relationships between the various types of urban nature as experienced by citizens and their overall well-being. The present research proposes a model for the potential influence of the perceptions of the type and characteristics of nature close to urban residences and citizens’ well-being via their frequency of exposure to, and their activities in, nature. Using WHOQOL-26 as a measure of well-being and constructing or adapting measurements for the other variables, a questionnaire was designed and administered among a sample of 2,500 French urban residents. Psychometric tests, structural equation modeling, and mediation analyses were conducted on the collected data. The results show that: (1) The perceived characteristics of nature near urban residences have both direct and indirect influences on the psychological, physical, environmental, and resources-related dimensions of citizens’ well-being; (2) Less domesticated nature—forests, fields, and scrubland—contributes to psychological well-being by favoring light or calm activities in nature, and to physical well-being by supporting exposure to nature. Such wilder nature is also positively associated with the perceived quality of urban residences; (3) Small spots of nature, located close to one’s residence—a balcony, a patio, or a roof garden—make a similar but smaller contribution to well-being; (4) Domesticated nature—city gardens and parks—contribute marginally to the physical and resources-related dimensions of well-being. These results complement past research on the perceived characteristics of nature by showing how nature, as experienced by urban citizens, refers to different vegetation spaces. They also invite urban planners and policymakers to acknowledge the positive association between “wilder” natural spaces and well-being.
Allard-Poesi, Florence, Matos, Lorena B.S. and Massu, Justine, (2022), Not all types of nature have an equal effect on urban residents’ well-being: A structural equation model approach, Post-Print, HAL.
Air Pollution Reduces the Individuals’ Life Satisfaction Through Health Impairment
Abstract: The impact of air pollution on individuals’ happiness and life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to other factors became the focus of recent research. Though, the underlying mechanism of how air pollution impacts LS remains unclear. In this study, we examined the direct and indirect effect of air pollution on individuals’ LS through health mediation. We used longitudinal individual-level data from “Understanding-Society: the UK Household-Longitudinal Study” on 59,492 individuals with 347,377 repeated responses across 11 years (2009–2019) that was linked to yearly concentrations of NO2, SO2, and particulate-matter (PM10, PM2.5) pollution. Generalized structural equation models with multilevel ordered-logistic regression were used to examine the direct effect of air pollution on LS and the indirect effect from health impairment. Higher concentrations of NO2 (coefficient = 0.009, 95%CI = 0.007,0.012, p < 0.001), SO2 (coefficient = 0.025, 95%CI = 0.017,0.034, p < 0.001), PM10 (coefficient = 0.019, 95%CI = 0.013,0.025, p < 0.001), and PM2.5 (coefficient = 0.025, 95%CI = 0.017,0.033, p < 0.001) pollutants were associated with poorer health, while poorer health was associated with reduced LS (coefficient = -0.605, 95%CI = -0.614,-0.595, p < 0.001). Mediation path analysis showed that air pollution impacted individuals’ LS directly and indirectly. The percent of total effect mediated through health was 44.03% for NO2, 73.95% for SO2, 49.88% for PM10, and 45.42% for PM2.5 and the ratio of indirect to direct effect was 0.79 for NO2, 2.84 for SO2, 0.99 for PM10, and 0.83 for PM2.5. Health plays a major mediating role in the relationship between air pollution and LS. To alleviate the impact of air pollution on LS, future strategies should focus on health promotion besides reducing air pollution emissions.
Abed Al Ahad, M. Air Pollution Reduces the Individuals’ Life Satisfaction Through Health Impairment. Applied Research Quality Life (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-024-10273-5
Norwegian Outdoor Happiness: Residential Outdoor Spaces and Active Leisure Time Contributions to Subjective Well-being at the National Population Level at the Start of and During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Abstract: Accumulating research shows that residential nature reliably promotes residents’ subjective well-being (SWB) in complex ways. The present study investigates how self-reported proximity to different outdoor spaces relate to SWB in Norway. The effects of having proximity to recreation and hiking areas and the frequency of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (MVLTPA) were estimated for five SWB measures (satisfaction with life, positive, and negative affect, mental well-being, and meaning in life). The study also estimated how outdoor spaces promote MVLTPA, and which of these relationships changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Two Norwegian samples (collected in 2020 and 2021; N = 34,904) were explored using multiple linear and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Residential outdoor spaces predicted higher SWB across measures and MVLTPA frequency. Importantly, an inverted U-shaped relationship between MVLTPA and all SWB measures was found, with a tipping point coinciding with weekly MVLTPA. Last, during the pandemic, outdoor spaces became stronger predictors: hiking areas for mental well-being and meaning in life; and recreation areas for MVLTPA (p < .05). This study refines our understanding of these complex relations and contributes to setting these effects in perspective with other sociodemographic factors and SWB measures. Lastly, the importance of residential outdoor spaces upon the prospect of future pandemics is discussed.
Grau-Ruiz, R., Løvoll, H.S. & Dyrdal, G.M. Norwegian Outdoor Happiness: Residential Outdoor Spaces and Active Leisure Time Contributions to Subjective Well-being at the National Population Level at the Start of and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Happiness Stud 25, 9 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-024-00732-z
Navigating the Well-Being Effects of Monetary Policy: Evidence from the Euro Area
Abstract: Central banks have recently adjusted their communication strategies to enhance engagement with the general public, yet there is limited understanding of public sentiment regarding monetary policy announcements. This paper investigates whether monetary policy announcements influence household (subjective) well-being in Germany over the period 2002-2018 and finds that tightening surprises reduce life satisfaction. Notably, the impact of a one standard deviation monetary policy shock on well-being is equivalent to a 4% decline in household income. This effect is particularly pronounced among middle-aged individuals and those belonging to the middle-class.
El Herradi, Mehdi and Leroy, Aurélien, (2023), Navigating the Well-Being Effects of Monetary Policy: Evidence from the Euro Area, No 2023/248, IMF Working Papers, International Monetary Fund.
Happiness Dynamics, Reference Dependence, and Motivated Beliefs in U.S. Presidential Elections
Abstract: Collecting and analyzing panel data over the last four U.S. presidential elections, we study the drivers of self-reported happiness. We relate our empirical findings to existing models of elation, reference dependence, and belief formation. In addition to corroborating previous findings in the literature (hedonic asymmetry/hedonic loss aversion, hedonic adaptation and motivated beliefs), we provide novel results that extend the literature in four dimensions. First, happiness responds to changes relative to both the political status quo (i.e., the incumbent presidential party) and the expected electoral outcome, providing support for two major hypotheses regarding reference point formation. Individuals exhibit hedonic loss aversion to deviations from expectations, but hedonic loss neutrality to changes from the status quo. Second, the speed of hedonic adaptation to deviations from the status quo is significantly slower than the speed of hedonic adaptation to surprises. Third, expectations affect happiness in a nonlinear way, consistent with Gul’s model of disappointment aversion, but contrary to other influential reference-dependent models. Fourth, both “objective” and motivated subjective beliefs matter for the happiness reactions, although subjective beliefs matter more.
Kimball, M. S., Raymond, C. B., Zhou, J., Zhou, J., Ohtake, F., & Tsutsui, Y. (2024). Happiness Dynamics, Reference Dependence, and Motivated Beliefs in U.S. Presidential Elections (Working Paper 32078). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w32078