Nous sommes heureux de vous annoncer la parution de la troisième édition de notre panorama du bien-être en France ! Si vous avez raté la conférence de présentation en ligne, vous pouvez la retrouver sur notre site, avec le lien de téléchargement du rapport.
Le Bien-être en France, Rapport 2022
Ce troisième rapport annuel de l’Observatoire du bien-être du CEPREMAP éclaire de nouveaux aspects du bien-être subjectif des Français et mobilise de nouvelles données. L’année 2022 porte les séquelles de l’épidémie de Covid-19, puis les conséquences de la guerre en Ukraine et du retour de l’inflation. Il décrit une France très inquiète. La crainte de l’inflation fait chuter le niveau de satisfaction dans la vie des Français à un niveau proche de la crise des Gilets jaunes. C’est surtout l’image qu’ils se font des années à venir et de la vie des prochaines générations en France qui se ternit.
Cette inquiétude se lit aussi dans la psychologie économique des Français. Ces derniers se représentent leur société comme très inégalitaire mais, comme la plupart des Européens, pensent en majorité y occuper une place de niveau intermédiaire et appartenir à la classe moyenne. Ils estiment souvent qu’ils ont progressé par rapport à la position sociale de leurs parents, mais anticipent à l’avenir une stagnation de leur propre rang dans la société.
Nous mesurons aussi l’effet d’évolutions profondes de la société. Tout d’abord, l’irruption du télétravail, durablement installée dans les pratiques depuis les épisodes de confinement. Plébiscité par les travailleurs, ce type d’organisation est-il réellement propice à leur bien-être ? Les choses ne semblent pas être si simples, au-delà de la possibilité d’éviter le temps et les fatigue des transports domicile—travail.
Ensuite, à une échelle plus large, le changement climatique représente le bouleversement majeur des décennies à venir. Les Français sont tous très conscients de la gravité du problème, mais sont inégalement disposés à agir, et les pratiques environnementales sont révélatrices de clivages sociaux, de genre et d’âge, avec toujours ce constat : les plus engagés dans les pratiques de transition énergétique sont aussi les plus satisfaits de leur vie.
Les émotions et le bien-être subjectif sont désormais reconnus comme des facteurs importants du paysage social et politique du pays. Il importe de les objectiver et d’en comprendre les ressorts. C’est l’objet des travaux, que nous restituons dans ce rapport.
Mathieu Perona et Claudia Senik, éd., Le Bien-être en France : Rapport 2022, (Paris: Cepremap, 2023)
Lu sur le web
A Public, Open, and Independently-Curated Database of Happiness Coefficients
Abstract: We present a nascent database of happiness coefficients. This is a synthesis of evidence on the size of improvements to human life experience that can be expected from changing objective, policy-amenable circumstances. The wealth of data on people’s self-reported satisfaction with life in a wide variety of circumstances, from around the world, including respondents undergoing a diversity of changes and life events and subject to a variety of public policies and policy changes, has provided a rich base of knowledge about what makes life good. This growing research literature has in recent years been met with interest from central governments looking for accountable but more human-centred approaches to measuring progress, as well as for communicating objectives, making policy, and allocating resources. Meanwhile, frameworks for benefit-cost accounting using inference from life satisfaction data have been devised. In some cases central government finance departments and treasuries are incorporating this approach into their formal methodology for budgeting. The body of causal inference about these effects is still somewhat diffuse. Collating, reviewing, and synthesizing such evidence should be led initially by academia and ultimately by a broad academic, civil society, and government collaboration. We report on the assembly of a database of summary estimates for Canada, supplemented where needed by evidence from around the world. The categorized domains of individual experience and circumstances include Education, Environment, Work, Finances, Health, Social Capital, and Crime. The paper also explains the context for and limitations of the use of a database of happiness coefficients.
C. P. Barrington-Leigh et Katja Lemermeyer, « A Public, Open, and Independently-Curated Database of Happiness Coefficients », Journal of Happiness Studies, 3 avril 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-023-00652-4.
Happier Elderly Residents The positive impact of physical activity on objective and subjective health condition of elderly people in nursing homes. Evidence from a multi-site randomized controlled trial
Abstract: Happier Elderly Residents The positive impact of physical activity on objective and subjective health condition of elderly people in nursing homes. Evidence from a multi-site randomized controlled trial. We explore the effects of adapted physical exercise programs in nursing homes, in which some residents suffer from dementia and/or physical limitations and other do not. We use data from 452 participants followed over 12 months in 32 retirement homes in four European countries. Using a difference-in-difference with individual random effects model, we show that the program has exerted a significant impact on the number of falls and the self-declared health and health-related quality of life of residents (EQ-5D). The wide scope of this study, in terms of sites, countries, and measured outcomes, brings generality to previously existing evidence. A simple computation, in the case of France, suggests that such programs are highly cost-efficient.
Claudia Senik et al., « Happier Elderly Residents The positive impact of physical activity on objective and subjective health condition of elderly people in nursing homes. Evidence from a multi-site randomized controlled trial », Working Paper (HAL, avril 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/halwpaper/halshs-03966677.htm.
Long COVID in the United States
Abstract: Although yet to be clearly identified as a clinical condition, there is immense concern at the health and wellbeing consequences of long COVID. Using data collected from nearly half a million Americans in the period June 2022-December 2022 in the US Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey (HPS), we find 14 percent reported suffering long COVID at some point, half of whom reported it at the time of the survey. Its incidence varies markedly across the United States – from 11 percent in Hawaii to 18 percent in West Virginia – and is higher for women than men, among Whites compared with Blacks and Asians, and declines with rising education and income. It peaks in midlife in the same way as negative affect. Ever having had long COVID is strongly associated with negative affect (anxiety, depression, worry and a lack of interest in things). The effect is larger among those who currently report long COVID, especially if they report severe symptoms. In contrast, those who report having had short COVID report higher wellbeing than those who report never having had COVID. Long COVID is also strongly associated with physical mobility problems, and with problems dressing and bathing. It is also associated with mental problems as indicated by recall and understanding difficulties. Again, the associations are strongest among those who currently report long COVID, while those who said they had had short COVID have fewer physical and mental problems than those who report never having had COVID. Vaccination is associated with lower negative affect, including among those who reported having had long COVID.
David G. Blanchflower et Alex Bryson, « Long COVID in the United States », DoQSS Working Paper (Quantitative Social Science – UCL Social Research Institute, University College London, 1 février 2023), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/qssdqsswp/2301.htm.
Trust, Happiness, and Pro-Social Behavior
Abstract: This paper combines several large-scale surveys and empirical strategies to shed new light on the determinants of cooperative behavior. We provide evidence indicating that the level of trust maximizing subjective well-being tends to be above the income maximizing level. Higher trust is also linked to more cooperative and pro-social behaviors, including the private provision of global public goods such as climate change mitigation. Consistent with “warm glow” theories of pro-social behavior, our results indicate that individuals may enjoy being more cooperative than what would lead them to maximize income, which can be reflected in higher levels of subjective well-being.
Stefano Carattini et Matthias Roesti, « Trust, Happiness, and Pro-Social Behavior », The Review of Economics and Statistics, 15 mars 2023, 1‑45, https://doi.org/10.1162/rest_a_01303.
Is there a religious explanation for high life satisfaction in Latin America?
Abstract: Recent initiatives call for the incorporation of subjective well-being measures in the assessment of development. Latin Americans do report, on average, very high life satisfaction levels, which are also higher than what would be predicted for their socio-economic situation. Within this context, it becomes relevant to explore some arguments that have been proposed to explain high life satisfaction in Latin America within a not so favourable socio-economic context. This paper studies the soundness of the religious explanation for high life satisfaction in Latin America; the argument is based on modernisation theories, and it states that higher-than-expected life satisfaction in Latin America is explained by high religiosity in the region. The investigation relies on representative surveys applied in three high life-satisfaction Latin American countries (Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico), as well as to the non-Hispanic White population in the United States. A cross-regional methodology is implemented to study the role of religious practice, religious-events participation, and religious affiliation in explaining higher-than-expected life satisfaction in Latin America. It is found that religious variables do not explain the high life satisfaction levels in the Latin American countries under study.
Mariano Rojas, « Is there a religious explanation for high life satisfaction in Latin America? », Third World Quarterly 0, no 0 (4 avril 2023): 1‑20, https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2023.2193319.
Inequality and happiness: the role of
income versus wealth inequality
Abstract: There are conflicting theories about whether individuals like or dislike inequality, or in other words, whether living in an unequal country increases or decreases their subjective well-being. The empirical literature has also not yet reached a consensus. In this paper, we add a new perspective to the inequality-happiness puzzle. First, we study not only income inequality, but also wealth inequality, which has so far been overlooked in the happiness literature. Second, we reach beyond the usually studied Gini coefficient and top income shares, looking also at the other parts of income or wealth distribution. Using data from the integrated World Values Surveys and European Values Surveys for over 50 countries, matched with World Inequality Database data over the years 1981-2020, we find that individuals are happier with increases in the top 10% and top 1% shares of wealth and less happy with increases in the middle 40% share of either wealth or pre-tax income. Increasing the bottom 50% share of after-tax income also makes individuals happier, suggesting that they favor income redistribution. We offer possible explanations for these findings.
Katarzyna Sałach-Dróżdż, « Inequality and happiness: the role of income versus wealth inequality », Working Paper (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, 2023), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/warwpaper/2023-04.htm.
Well-Being and Income Across Space and Time: Evidence from One Million Households
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the global trends and driving forces of well-being and income. We extend the literature by examining inequality in both variables, since average well-being and income measures can obscure important disparities in people’s lives. We use data from the Gallup World Poll for nine years (2009–2017) and 158 countries (N = 1,437,897). Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we present country-level panel evidence. Second, we estimate microeconometric regressions to reveal the individual-level drivers of well-being and income. We find that the mean of well-being and income by development group varies little over time, while inequality in these two variables change significantly. We find no evidence of the Easterlin paradox after controlling for income inequality and show that income growth reduces well-being inequality. Further, drivers of mean and inequality in well-being and income are similar, but policymakers should consider the full distributional impact of investments.
Michael D. Smith et Dennis Wesselbaum, « Well-Being and Income Across Space and Time: Evidence from One Million Households », Journal of Happiness Studies, 13 avril 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-023-00660-4.
A gender affinity effect: the role of gender in teaching evaluations at a Danish university
Abstract: A series of studies have identified gender bias in teaching evaluations in higher education—with women being evaluated lower than men. However, other recent studies indicate that gender bias is not present across all contexts. Our study adds to the understanding of the role of gender in teaching evaluations by focusing on a Danish university—a national context with relatively high educational gender equality and support for egalitarian gender norms. Crucially, the study pays systematic attention to the role of students’ gender in explaining evaluation outcomes. In a quantitative analysis of 125,000 evaluations in the social sciences at a Danish university, we identify a same-gender affinity. While there is no overall gender bias in the evaluations, students evaluate a teacher of their own gender best. To understand the mechanisms behind this pattern, we analyze comments provided by students in teaching evaluations and 20 interviews with students. Students are generally more positive in their descriptions of a teacher of their own gender. Moreover, we identify gendered patterns in the perceptions of teachers as well as in the aspects of teachers’ behavior and characteristics appreciated by students.
Anne Skorkjær Binderkrantz et Mette Bisgaard, « A Gender Affinity Effect: The Role of Gender in Teaching Evaluations at a Danish University », Higher Education, 14 avril 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-023-01025-9.
Migrant Status and the Wellbeing Gap: The Case of an Ethnically Diverse, High-Conflict Area in Indonesia
Abstract: Communities with high levels of in-migration can experience substantial social, cultural, and economic change due to the upheaval in social dynamics and changes to the economy. Such upheaval can result in between-group inequalities amongst the native and migrant populations, with migrants tending to have lower levels of wellbeing compared to those who were born in the area. Through utilising a culturally adapted wellbeing measurement tool, the Indonesian Wellbeing Scale, this study examines the native-immigrant wellbeing gap in Papua, Indonesia. Papua has historically experienced high levels of conflict, and is highly ethnically diverse, making it a unique context to examine the native-immigrant wellbeing gap. Drawing on data collected in 2020, the results indicate that the immigrant population has significantly higher levels of wellbeing when controlling for a number of socio-demographic characteristics. This finding is driven by all wellbeing dimensions within the Indonesian Wellbeing Scale: spirituality, social relations, material needs, and self-acceptance. Possible explanations for this include the happy migrant hypothesis, levels of wellbeing pre-migration, and impacts of the migration process. These findings have important implications for migration within both Indonesia, and in similar contexts throughout the world, highlighting that care must be taken when implementing migration policies to ensure that receiving communities are not negatively affected. Furthermore, the study emphasises the value in using a multidimensional, culturally adapted wellbeing measurement tool that was developed in consultation with individuals in the community to ensure we are more closely measuring what matters to people.
Kate Sollis et al., « Migrant Status and the Wellbeing Gap: The Case of an Ethnically Diverse, High-Conflict Area in Indonesia », Journal of Happiness Studies, 22 avril 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-023-00659-x.
On Rule of Law, Civic Virtues, Trust, and Happiness
Abstract: In literature, there is a long and ongoing dispute over whether free market institutions encourage or discourage civic virtues. On the one hand, the so-called doux commerce thesis states that free market institutions have a favorable influence on civic virtues, such as honesty, respect for private property, and fair dealings. This idea goes back to, amongst others, Adam Smith who famously argued that where commerce is introduced, people are more faithful to their word. Smith also believed that civic virtues foster human happiness. The policy implication would be that free market institutions increase happiness by stimulating civic virtues. On the other hand, the so-called self-destruction thesis states that free market institutions are inimical to the civic virtues, which would mean that free markets decrease human happiness by crowding out civic virtues. Although the debate on free market institutions and civic virtues is very relevant to policy makers, empirical evidence on these opposing propositions is still scarce. In this paper we test both relationships on a sample of 212,431 individuals from 80 countries by using data from the World Values Survey and the European Values Survey over the 1990–2020 period. We focus on one important dimension of free market institutions: rule of law. We find that civic virtues are positively related to rule of law and that happiness increases with civic virtues. In addition, civic virtues indirectly increase happiness by stimulating trust. In addition, trust is directly positively related to rule of law, indicating that both formal institutions (rule of law) and informal institutions (civic virtues) affect trust. An analysis of all the effects of rule of law on happiness shows, however, that the indirect effects through civic virtues and trust are of relatively minor importance in comparison to its total effect.
Johan Graafland, « On Rule of Law, Civic Virtues, Trust, and Happiness », Applied Research in Quality of Life, 15 avril 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-023-10163-2.
Happiness in Old Age: The Daughter Connection
Abstract: Family and intergenerational relationships are becoming increasingly important as sources of support and care for the elderly population in rapidly ageing Asian societies. However, this has also raised concerns over reinforcement of cultural preference for sons as a source of old-age security. This paper therefore revisits the question—what determines happiness in old age—by investigating the role of adult children’s gender in the context of Thailand, an ageing Asian country with no legacy of sex-preference in fertility. We employ nationally representative data to examine the association between old-age happiness and presence of a co-residing child. Compared to living alone, living with at least one child is found to positively associate with older persons’ happiness. However, this result is specific to daughters. Moreover, compared to older men, women systematically benefit from a “daughter effect”. Co-residing daughters with university education and those who maintain a good relationship with their parents help explain the positive happiness effect on older persons. Co-residing daughters are also positively linked to reduced loneliness; improved self-rated health; and improved economic conditions of older parents. Our findings suggest that policies that increase human capital of the girl child and enhance family solidarity are likely to have long term intergenerational wellbeing benefits.
Pataporn Sukontamarn et al., « Happiness in Old Age: The Daughter Connection », Journal of Happiness Studies, 28 avril 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-023-00655-1.