Dans notre Note de février, nous avons exploré la relation compliquée des Français avec l’avenir, et en particulier leur pessimisme dès qu’il s’agit de l’avenir lointain ou collectif.
Ce mois de mars sera l’occasion de faire le point sur l’évolution du bien-être dans le monde et en France. Le World Happiness Report sera dévoilé le 20 prochain. De notre côté, nous mettons les touches finales à notre rapport annuel Le Bien-être en France, dont nous annoncerons très bientôt la date de présentation !
Les Français ont-ils peur de l’avenir ?
Depuis le début de notre enquête, nous relevons le pessimisme des Français, modéré quant à leur avenir individuel, plus marqué lorsqu’il s’agit des perspectives collectives. Dans cette Note, nous détaillons ce constat en fonction de l’horizon. Si l’âge influe sur l’optimisme individuel, c’est le diplôme qui semble plus discriminant dans l’appréciation de l’avenir collectif. Nous revenons également sur la propension à regarder vers un passé récent. Plus qu’un modèle de société, les Français se reportent sur la période leur jeunesse.
Mathieu Perona, « Les Français ont-ils peur de l’avenir ? », Notes de l’Observatoire du bien-être (Paris: CEPREMAP, 8 février 2023), https://www.cepremap.fr/2023/02/note-de-lobservatoire-du-bien-etre-n2023-04-les-francais-ont-ils-peur-de-lavenir/.
World Happiness Report
L’édition 2023 sera dévoilée le 20 mars. S’inscrire.
Guide d’application de la Loi pour une République numérique pour les données de la recherche
Résumé : Promulguée en 2016, la loi pour une République numérique (LRN) comporte plusieurs mesures sur lesquelles vient s’appuyer la politique nationale de science ouverte. Ces mesures sont transposées, notamment, dans le Code de la recherche et dans le Code régissant les relations entre le public et l’administration (CRPA). Le présent guide vise à proposer des recommandations pour l’application de ces mesures. En particulier, il propose des éléments d’interprétation de l’article 30 de la loi (devenu article L. 533-4 du Code de la recherche), qui est connu pour être une disposition majeure en matière de publication des écrits scientifiques (alinéas I et III), en ce qu’il instaure un droit pour les chercheurs au dépôt de leurs publications en archive ouverte, moyennant le respect de certaines conditions. Cet article comporte également des précisions, peut-être moins connues, relatives aux données de recherche en tant que telles (alinéa II). L’intérêt majeur de l’article L. 533-4 du Code de la recherche est qu’il vise des situations de production et de réutilisation des données scientifiques dans un contexte partenarial. La relation de cet article avec les dispositions du CRPA fixant le périmètre de l’« open data » des données publiques (principes et exceptions à leur ouverture et à leur réutilisation, cas particuliers, issus de l’article 6 de la LRN) est proposée comme fil directeur de ce guide. Ce guide vient préciser les travaux antérieurs, notamment Ouverture des données de la recherche. Guide d’analyse du cadre juridique en France de 2017 et Guide d’application de la loi pour une République numérique (article 30) Écrits scientifiques de 2018, dans un contexte d’évolution constante de la réglementation, notamment au niveau européen.
Cécile Arènes, Lionel Maurel, et Stephanie Rennes, « Guide d’application de la Loi pour une République numérique pour les données de la recherche » (report, Comité pour la science ouverte, 2022), https://hal-lara.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03968218.
Lu sur le web
Consumption and Life Satisfaction: The Korean Evidence
Abstract: This study examines the association between consumption expenditure and life satisfaction among older Koreans (aged 50 or older). We estimate a series of individual fixed effects regressions that link life satisfaction to various types of household consumption using data drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The results show that leisure consumption is positively related to life satisfaction and that this association is driven largely by uncommon and infrequent leisure activities, like travel and entertainment. Expenditures for leisure that provides more ordinary experiences, such as recreation and self-development programs, were generally uncorrelated with life satisfaction, despite being consumed by a large fraction of older Koreans. Finally, the evidence on whether material purchases or status-enhancing purchases were positively correlated with life satisfaction is mixed. On the one hand, our findings reaffirm the conventional wisdom that people feel more satisfied when spending money on experiences than on material possessions. On the other hand, we provide the novel finding that consumption directed toward extraordinary and memorable experiences that go beyond everyday life tends to generate greater future life satisfaction.
Youngjoo Choung, Tae-Young Pak, et Swarn Chatterjee, « Consumption and Life Satisfaction: The Korean Evidence », MPRA Paper (University Library of Munich, Germany, 1 septembre 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/pramprapa/115765.htm.
Ongoing Remote Work, Returning to Working at Work, or in between during COVID-19: What Promotes Subjective Well-being?
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated a massive turn to remote work, followed by subsequent shifts for many into hybrid or fully returning to the office. To understand the patterned dynamics of subjective well-being associated with shifting places of work, we conducted a nationally representative panel survey (October 2020 and April 2021) of U.S. employees who worked remotely at some point since the pandemic (N = 1,817). Cluster analysis identified four patterned constellations of well-being based on burnout, work–life conflict, and job and life satisfaction. A total return to office is generally more stressful, leading to significantly lower probabilities of being in the optimal low stress/high satisfaction constellation by Wave 2, especially for men and women without care obligations. Remote and hybrid arrangements have salutary effects; moving to hybrid is especially positive for minority men and less educated men, although it disadvantages White women’s well-being.
Wen Fan et Phyllis Moen, « Ongoing Remote Work, Returning to Working at Work, or in between during COVID-19: What Promotes Subjective Well-Being? », Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24 janvier 2023, 00221465221150283, https://doi.org/10.1177/00221465221150283.
Working from Home and Worker Well-being: New Evidence from Germany
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic piqued interest in remote work, but research yields mixed findings on the impact of working from home on workers’ well-being and job attitudes. The authors develop a conceptual distinction between working from home that occurs during regular work hours (replacement work-from-home) and working from home that occurs outside of those hours (extension work-from-home). Using linked establishment-employee survey data from Germany, the authors find that extension work-from-home is associated with lower psychological well-being, higher turnover intentions, and higher work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts. By contrast, replacement work-from-home is associated with better well-being and higher job satisfaction, but higher work-to-family conflict. Extension work-from-home has more negative effects for women’s well-being and work-to-family conflict. This distinction clarifies the conditions under which remote work can have positive consequences for workers and for organizations.
Duanyi Yang et al., « Working from Home and Worker Well-Being: New Evidence from Germany », ILR Review, 24 janvier 2023, 00197939221148716, https://doi.org/10.1177/00197939221148716.
Political Ideology, Policy Preferences and Public Support for European Integration
Abstract: How does support for European integration relate to left-right political ideology? Studies of political parties and elites often find that the relationship resembles an inverted U-curve, with support highest at the center of the scale and falling both towards the extreme left and extreme right ends. The same ‘horseshoe’ pattern has been observed with respect to public opinion as well, but recent studies question its generalizability across countries, time periods and measures of support for European integration. This article reports the most comprehensive study to date of the relationships between support for European integration (operationalized in several different ways) with self-placement on the left-right ideological scale and policy preferences for redistribution, immigration and gay rights. Based on data from the European Social Survey and Eurobarometer, I chart the patterns of covariation for all countries in the European Union between 2004 and 2020. The analysis introduces the use of flexible non-parametric methods (generalized additive models) and more appropriate measures of dependence (the distance correlation coefficient) than the usually-employed Pearson’s correlation and regression coefficients. I find that the relationship between public support for European integration and left-right ideology is weak and extremely heterogeneous across countries. The exact form of the relationship depends on the operationalization of European integration support, the country and the time period, but it rarely resembles the classic inverted U-curve. In fact, EU support is typically highest at the moderate left rather than at the center. The relationship of support for European integration with immigration attitudes is much stronger, stable and almost linear; with support for gay rights is also linear but considerably weaker than with immigration; with support for redistribution there is practically no relationship at all. There is some evidence that the strength of the link with different policy preferences peaks when the salience of the policy issue is highest. But there is much remaining variation that calls for an explanation.
Dimiter Toshkov, « Political Ideology, Policy Preferences and Public Support for European Integration » (OSF Preprints, 6 février 2023), https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/bg7xh.
Can Teleworking Improve Workers’ Job Satisfaction? Exploring the Roles of Gender and Emotional Well-Being
Abstract: With the rise of teleworking during the past decades, the impacts of teleworking on job satisfaction have been extensively debated. Teleworking might benefit workers by improving work-life balance and emotional well-being, but it also brings considerable challenges. This study empirically investigates the impacts of teleworking on workers’ enjoyment across daily working episodes and job satisfaction and its gendered patterns, using Ordinary Least Squares regressions and the latest nationally representative time-use survey data in the UK. Moreover, it uses the Karlson/Holm/Breen (KHB) decomposition method to examine the role of enjoyment at work in mediating the associations between teleworking and job satisfaction. Overall, this study yields two major findings. First, among men, teleworkers tend to have higher levels of enjoyment at work and job satisfaction, but this is not the case for women. Second, around 46% of teleworking’s positive impacts on men’s job satisfaction can be explained by higher levels of enjoyment at work. Taken together, by integrating different theoretical perspectives on teleworking, gender and emotional well-being, this study provides interdisciplinary insights into the nuanced social consequences of teleworking, highlights the disadvantaged position of women in the use of teleworking, and demonstrates the need to enhance emotional well-being in future labour market policies.
Zhuofei Lu et Wei Zhuang, « Can Teleworking Improve Workers’ Job Satisfaction? Exploring the Roles of Gender and Emotional Well-Being », Applied Research in Quality of Life, 4 février 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-023-10145-4.
Do Fathers Have Son Preference in the United States? Evidence from Paternal Subjective Well-Being
Abstract: Using data drawn from 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey Well-Being Modules, this paper examines the existence of son preference among fathers in the U.S. by estimating the effect of child gender on the fathers’ subjective well-being. A wide range of subjective well-being measures, including happiness, pain, sadness, stress, tiredness, and meaningfulness, is analyzed, and fixed-effects models are adopted to control for unobserved individual heterogeneity. The results from the full sample show that fathers feel less sad and tired when interacting with both sons and daughters versus with daughters only. In families with only one child, fathers report no difference in subjective well-being when spending time with a son versus with a daughter. By further stratifying this sample of fathers by child’s age of three, we continue to find no difference in paternal subjective well-being between being with a son and with a daughter when the child is younger than three. However, when the child is three or older, we find that fathers feel less stressed and more meaningful being with a son versus with a daughter. The results from Asian fathers in the U.S., in contrast, show a tremendous reduction in stress in activities with sons only than with daughters only. These results indicate no evidence of son preference in the general U.S. population. If there is any, it only exists among Asian fathers in the U.S.
Younghwan Song et Jia Gao, « Do Fathers Have Son Preference in the United States? Evidence from Paternal Subjective Well-Being », IZA Discussion Paper (Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), décembre 2022), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/izaizadps/dp15828.htm.
The Age U-shape in Europe: The Protective Role of Partnership
Abstract: In this study, we ask whether the U-shaped relationship between life satisfactionand age is flatter for individuals who are partnered. An analysis of cross-sectionalEU-SILC data indicates that the decline in life satisfaction from the teens to thefifties is almost four times larger for non-partnered than for partnered individuals,whose life satisfaction essentially follows a slight downward trajectory with age.However, the same analysis applied to three panel datasets (BHPS, SOEP andHILDA) reveals a U-shape for both groups, albeit somewhat flatter for the partneredthan for the non-partnered individuals. We suggest that the difference between thecross-sectional and the panel results reflects compositional effects: i.e., there isa significant shift of the relatively dissatisfied out of marriage in mid-life. Thesecompositional effects tend to flatten the U-shape in age for the partnered individualsin the cross-sectional data.
Andrew Clark, Hippolyte d’Albis, et Angela Greulich, « The Age U-shape in Europe: The Protective Role of Partnership », SciencePo Working papers Main (HAL, 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/halspmain/halshs-03467204.htm.
Height and Well-Being During the Transition from Plan to Market
Abstract: Using newly available data, we re-evaluate the impact of transition from plan to market in former communist countries on objective and subjective well-being. We find clear evidence of the high social cost of early transition reforms: cohorts born around the start of transition are about 1 cm shorter than their older or younger peers. We provide suggestive evidence on the importance on mechanisms that partially explain these results: the decline of GDP per capita and the deterioration of healthcare systems. On the bright side, we find that cohorts that experienced transition in their infancy are now better educated and more satisfied with their lives than their counterparts. Taken together, our results imply that the transition process has been a traumatic experience, but that its negative impact has largely been overcome.
Alicia Adsera et al., « Height and Well-Being During the Transition from Plan to Market », Post-Print (HAL, 1 janvier 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/haljournl/hal-03878624.htm.
Windows of developmental sensitivity to social media
Abstract: The relationship between social media use and life satisfaction changes across adolescent development. Our analyses of two UK datasets comprising 84,011 participants (10–80 years old) find that the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported estimates of social media use and life satisfaction ratings is most negative in younger adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in this relationship are only present during this time. Longitudinal analyses of 17,409 participants (10–21 years old) suggest distinct developmental windows of sensitivity to social media in adolescence, when higher estimated social media use predicts a decrease in life satisfaction ratings one year later (and vice-versa: lower estimated social media use predicts an increase in life satisfaction ratings). These windows occur at different ages for males (14–15 and 19 years old) and females (11–13 and 19 years old). Decreases in life satisfaction ratings also predicted subsequent increases in estimated social media use, however, these were not associated with age or sex.
Amy Orben et al., « Windows of Developmental Sensitivity to Social Media », Nature Communications 13, no 1 (28 mars 2022): 1649, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29296-3.