Bonne année 2023 à toutes et à tous !
Nous débutons l’année par une Note sur les trajets domicile-travail. Il s’agit d’un domaine où la recherche est encore parcellaire, mais nous avons tâché d’en dégager des lignes de force qui soulignent ce que les indicateurs de bien-être subjectif peuvent apporter à l’amélioration de notre expérience quotidienne.
Nous avons par ailleurs relancé le Carnet de l’Observatoire, pour y héberger de courts billets et réactions qui ont plus vocations à souligner un point précis et à ouvrir le débat.
À pied, à vélo, en bus ou en voiture : les trajets domicile-travail
Pour notre première Note de 2023, nous examinons l’impact des trajets domicile-travail sur le bien-être subjectif.
Mathieu Perona, « À pied, à vélo, en bus ou en voiture : les trajets domicile-travail », Notes de l’Observatoire du bien-être (Paris: CEPREMAP, 3 janvier 2023), https://www.cepremap.fr/2023/01/note-de-lobservatoire-du-bien-etre-n2023-01-a-pied-a-velo-en-bus-ou-en-voiture-les-trajets-domicile-travail/.
2021 a été une année particulière
Dire que 2021 a été une année particulière semble être une évidence. Pourtant, nous commençons déjà à voir quelques infographies qui intègrent sans y prendre garde des données collectées cette année-là, et les agrègent à des données antérieures – conduisant à généraliser des effets probablement assez spécifiques à la situation de pandémie. Une illustration avec l’American Time Use Survey pour le blog de l’OBE.
Mathieu Perona, « 2021 a été une année particulière », Billet, Carnet de l’Observatoire du Bien-être du CEPREMAP (blog), consulté le 1 décembre 2022, https://obe.hypotheses.org/535.
À force de regarder moyennes et tableaux de régression, nous oublions souvent de bien prendre la mesure de l’hétérogénéité de nos observations. Nous disposons maintenant d’outils qui nous permettent une vision fine de nos données.
Mathieu Perona, « Représenter l’hétérogénéité », Billet, Carnet de l’Observatoire du Bien-être du CEPREMAP (blog), consulté le 6 décembre 2022, https://obe.hypotheses.org/550.
L’écueil du point de données : la satisfaction dans la vie en 2021
L’Insee a publié en décembre son tableau de bord des Indicateurs de richesse nationale pour 2021. Parmi ceux-ci, la satisfaction dans la vie, qui atteint son niveau le plus bas depuis 2010, à 6,8 sur une échelle de 0 à 10. Effectivement, 2021 a été une année pénible, mais notre enquête trimestrielle nous montre que ce point donne probablement une vision trop pessimiste de la satisfaction des Français en 2021.
Mathieu Perona, « L’écueil du point de données : la satisfaction dans la vie en 2021 », Billet, Carnet de l’Observatoire du Bien-être du CEPREMAP (blog), consulté le 16 décembre 2022, https://obe.hypotheses.org/563.
Lu sur le web
Can Environmental Protection Behavior Enhance Farmers’ Subjective Well-Being?
Abstract: The significance of environmental protection activities is well known, but little literature has focused on the well-being effects of environmental protection behavior among farmer groups. This study provides new literature support for farmers and rural development issues. Using data from the 2013 China Integrated Social Survey, a systematic and robust examination of the happiness effects of environmental protection behavior among Chinese farmers and their transmission mechanisms was conducted with the help of multiple regression techniques and mediated impact analysis. The study found that Chinese farmers’ environmental protection behavior can directly trigger the experience of well-being and also indirectly enhance subjective well-being by improving the quality of life in other areas, thanks to their characteristics in avoiding environmental risks and enhancing social interactions. Increased education may contribute to farmers being more motivated by benefits such as material rewards, experience, and skills, and thus experiencing less well-being from environmental protection behavior. The fact that farmers of all household incomes experience equal well-being from environmental protection behavior is consistent with the view of non-differential well-being experiences in the volunteering literature. The research in this paper adds new evidence to the existing literature and provides an essential reference for policymakers and participants in rural development in China. In addition, studying individual issues in environmental governance in rural China provides a Chinese case study and practical lessons for farmer development in other countries worldwide.
Wenhao Qi et al., « Can Environmental Protection Behavior Enhance Farmers’ Subjective Well-Being? », Journal of Happiness Studies, 5 décembre 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00606-2.
Changes in life satisfaction during the transition to retirement: findings from the FIREA cohort study
Abstract: Life satisfaction is an essential construct of well-being that is tied to behavioral, emotional, social and psychological outcomes. This study aimed to examine changes in total and domain-specific life satisfaction during the retirement transition and additionally examine whether those changes differ by gender, occupation, health and spousal working status. Aging public sector employees (n = 3543) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study cohort study were followed up annually before and after retirement. Total life satisfaction score (range 4–20) was computed by summing up the responses in four domains (interestingness, happiness, easiness and togetherness). The mean and mean change estimates and their 95% CI were calculated by using the linear regression models with generalized estimating equations, adjusted for age, gender, occupation, health and marital status. Total life satisfaction score improved among the entire study population during the retirement transition and remained stable thereafter. The improvement was greater among women versus men (gender * time interaction p = 0.004), among those with suboptimal health before retirement vs. those who had good (health * time p < 0.0001) and those who had no spouse vs. those who had a retired or working spouse (spousal-status * time p < 0.0001). In case of domain-specific life satisfaction scores, the greatest improvement was observed in the easiness domain. Life satisfaction improves during the retirement transition period, especially among women, those with suboptimal health and those living without a spouse. The improvement was considerably greater in the easiness domain than any other domains. Life satisfaction remained improved and stable during the post-retirement period.
K. C. Prakash et al., « Changes in Life Satisfaction during the Transition to Retirement: Findings from the FIREA Cohort Study », European Journal of Ageing, 23 novembre 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-022-00745-8.
Inequality, well-being, and the problem of the unknown reporting function
Dans un Commentaire pour PNAS, C. Kaiser et A. Oswald discutent les implications de (Dwyer and Dunn, 2022).
Caspar Kaiser et Andrew J. Oswald, « Inequality, well-being, and the problem of the unknown reporting function », Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119, no 50 (13 décembre 2022): e2217750119, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2217750119.
Ryan J. Dwyer et Elizabeth W. Dunn, « Wealth Redistribution Promotes Happiness », Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119, no 46 (15 novembre 2022): e2211123119, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2211123119.
The Effect of Consumer Confidence and Subjective Well-being on Consumers’ Spending Behavior
Abstract: The paper focuses on the role of consumer confidence and selected well-being measures in aggregate consumption and in subsets of aggregate consumption on a broad set of 22 OECD countries. Consumer confidence played a positive and statistically significant role in the development of expenditures especially on durable and semi-durable goods and services. The increase in cognitive, affective and eudaimonic measures of well-being, measured by the Cantril ladder, positive and negative affect and freedom to make life choices variables, had negative impact on total consumption and expenditures on semi-durable goods and services. Possible explanations for these estimates are provided in the paper. Based on the purpose of expenditure, consumer confidence was a significant determinant of all expenditures except for unavoidable spending such as food, health, housing, water, energy, and fuel. The subjective well-being indicators showed a negative impact on expenditures on clothing and footwear, recreation and culture, and restaurants and hotels. Possible explanations for the positive and negative effects of subjective well-being measures on consumption, benefits of including the freedom of choice variable, and directions for future research regarding the introduction of understudied variables are discussed.
Lenka Mynaříková et Vít Pošta, « The Effect of Consumer Confidence and Subjective Well-Being on Consumers’ Spending Behavior », Journal of Happiness Studies, 29 novembre 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00603-5.
Are mobile phone ownership and age of acquisition associated with child adjustment? A 5-year prospective study among low-income Latinx children
Abstract: This prospective, longitudinal study examined associations between whether and when children first acquire a mobile phone and their adjustment measures, among low-income Latinx children. Children (N = 263; 55% female; baseline Mage = 9.5) and their parents were assessed annually for 5 years from 2012. Children first acquired a mobile phone at a mean (SD) age of 11.62 (1.41) years. Pre-registered multilevel models tested associations linking phone ownership, phone acquisition age, and the interaction between ownership and acquisition age to levels and changing trends of depressive symptoms, school grades, and reported and objectively assessed sleep. Results showed no statistically significant associations, controlling the False Discovery Rate. Findings suggest an absence of meaningful links from mobile phone ownership and acquisition age to child adjustment.
Xiaoran Sun et al., « Are Mobile Phone Ownership and Age of Acquisition Associated with Child Adjustment? A 5-Year Prospective Study among Low-Income Latinx Children », Child Development n/a, no n/a, consulté le 5 décembre 2022, https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13851.
Longitudinal analysis of sentiment and emotion in news media headlines using automated labelling with Transformer language models
Abstract: This work describes a chronological (2000–2019) analysis of sentiment and emotion in 23 million headlines from 47 news media outlets popular in the United States. We use Transformer language models fine-tuned for detection of sentiment (positive, negative) and Ekman’s six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise) plus neutral to automatically label the headlines. Results show an increase of sentiment negativity in headlines across written news media since the year 2000. Headlines from right-leaning news media have been, on average, consistently more negative than headlines from left-leaning outlets over the entire studied time period. The chronological analysis of headlines emotionality shows a growing proportion of headlines denoting anger, fear, disgust and sadness and a decrease in the prevalence of emotionally neutral headlines across the studied outlets over the 2000–2019 interval. The prevalence of headlines denoting anger appears to be higher, on average, in right-leaning news outlets than in left-leaning news media.
David Rozado, Ruth Hughes, et Jamin Halberstadt, « Longitudinal Analysis of Sentiment and Emotion in News Media Headlines Using Automated Labelling with Transformer Language Models », PLOS ONE 17, no 10 (18 octobre 2022): e0276367, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0276367.
A multidimensional understanding of prosperity and well-being at country level: Data-driven explorations
Abstract: Social scientists have been interested in measuring the prosperity, well-being, and quality of life of nations, which has resulted in a multiplicity of country-level indicators. However, little is known about the factor structure of these indicators. We explored the structure of quality of life, using country-level data on tens of subjective and objective indicators. Applying factor analysis, we identified three distinct factors that exhibited both overlap and complementarity. This structure was replicated in data from previous years and with a partially different set of variables. The first factor, ‘socio-economic progress’, is dominated by socio-political and economic indicators but also includes life satisfaction, which thus appears to reflect objective living conditions. The second factor, ‘psycho-social functioning’, consists of subjective indicators, such as eudaimonic well-being and positive affective states. The third, ‘negative affectivity’, comprises negatively-valenced affective states. The three macro-factors of societal quality of life demonstrated moderate intercorrelations and differential associations with cultural and ecological variables, providing support for their discriminant validity. Finally, country and regional rankings based on the three societal factors revealed a complex picture that cautions against over-reliance on any single indicator such as life satisfaction. The results underline the need for a broadly-based approach to the measurement of societal quality of life, and provide an empirically-derived multidimensional framework for conceptualizing and measuring quality of life and well-being at country level. This study is thus an initial empirical step towards systematizing the multiple approaches to societal quality of life.
Mohsen Joshanloo, Veljko Jovanović, et Tim Taylor, « A Multidimensional Understanding of Prosperity and Well-Being at Country Level: Data-Driven Explorations », PLOS ONE 14, no 10 (9 octobre 2019): e0223221, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223221.
The Welfare Effects of Time Reallocation: Evidence from Daylight Saving Time
Abstract: Daylight Saving Time (DST) is currently implemented by more than seventy countries, yet we do not have a clear knowledge of how it affects individuals’ welfare. Using a regression discontinuity design combined with a differences-in-differences approach, we find that the Spring DST causes a significant decline in life satisfaction. By inducing a reallocation of time, the transition into DST deteriorates sleep and increases time stress, which in turn affects physical and emotional health. After performing a simple cost-benefit analysis, we find evidence suggestive that ending DST would exert a positive effect on welfare, namely the wellbeing costs associated with DST exceed its benefits.
Joan Costa-Font, Sarah Fleche, et Ricardo Pagan, « The Welfare Effects of Time Reallocation: Evidence from Daylight Saving Time », Working Paper (HAL, juillet 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/halwpaper/halshs-03835461.htm.
Life satisfaction and desire to emigrate: What does the cross-national analysis show?
Abstract: Few articles explain how life satisfaction and happiness influence intention to migrate to another country. This study fills the gap by investigating the desire to emigrate in relation to individual life satisfaction while testing for moderation effects of national life satisfaction scores, the Human Development Index and Gender Inequality Index at country level. The empirical analysis is based on the unique Gallup World Poll data for 127 countries in 2017. In line with previous research, the findings confirm a negative association between life satisfaction (both individual and country level) and the desire to emigrate. Furthermore, results point to mean country life satisfaction, human development and gender inequality levels acting as moderators of individual-level life satisfaction on the desire to emigrate. Higher aggregate life satisfaction levels act as counter-forces to individual life satisfaction, performing as enablers of stay versus move. In countries with lower human development and higher gender inequality, individual life satisfaction will act as an enabler to move. A comprehensive discussion includes findings for gender and age groups and those born or not born in the country.
Tatiana Karabchuk, Marina-Selini Katsaiti, et Karin A. C. Johnson, « Life Satisfaction and Desire to Emigrate: What Does the Cross-National Analysis Show? », International Migration n/a, no n/a, consulté le 8 décembre 2022, https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.13064.