Newsletter de l’Observatoire du Bien-être n°53 – Mai 2022

Nous avons eu une forte actualité éditoriale en avril, avec la parution de notre rapport annuel sur le bien-être en France, la note de conjoncture portant sur les données de mars, et une note jointe avec l’IRSN sur la perception que les Français ont des grands risques.

Nous relevons également une sélection importante d’articles, qui attestent de la vitalité des recherches mobilisant les métriques de bien-être subjectif. Depuis le début de cette veille, nous voyons s’élargir progressivement la palette des domaines couverts, ce qui est pour nous un signe très positif.


Couverture du Rapport OBE 2021

Le Bien-être en France – Rapport 2021

La deuxième édition de notre rapport annuel sur le bien-être en France est disponible en téléchargement depuis le 15 avril dernier. Vous pouvez également retrouver sur la même page la conférence de présentation, animée par Thibault Lieurade (The Conversation).

Le Bien-être des Français – Mars 2022

Notre baromètre de mars montre que se poursuit l’érosion de la satisfaction dans la vie. Le bien-être émotionnel reste sur des valeurs faibles, conjuguées à des inquiétudes quant aux perspectives d’avenir.

Le travail, l’équilibre des temps de vie et les relations avec les proches restent des domaines de satisfactions, mais de manière contrastée selon l’âge, le genre et la présence d’enfants.

Ce trimestre, nous introduisons une nouvelle question : dans quel pays aimerions-nous vivre, si la langue et la distance n’étaient pas des obstacles ? La France reste plébiscitée par 45 % des répondants, puis viennent le Canada et les pays d’Europe du sud.

Les Français face aux grands risques

En mobilisant le Baromètre de l’IRSN, nous inscrivons la perception des risques par les Français dans un temps plus long. Ce sont désormais des risques « globalisés » qui inquiètent les Français. Au-delà de la préoccupation immédiate pour le risque sanitaire, ce baromètre révèle la montée en puissance de la perception du risque terroriste et surtout des risques climatiques, avec en contrepartie, une érosion de l’importance perçue des risques économiques, sociaux, et du nucléaire.

Lu sur le web

Well-being in education in childhood and adolescence (2022

Abstract: The aim of this study is to give the International Baccalaureate (IB) and IB World Schools an overview of the latest research behind well-being in childhood and adolescence. The report includes three components: a literature review, an evidence-based well-being framework, and a questionnaire to obtain school feedback on the framework. Specifically, the report focuses on subjective well-being—how a young person evaluates their own life at school. The well-being framework is intended as a broad overview of factors that are likely involved in well-being in schools, and is presented through four themes: health, people, environment and skills. A number of key findings emerged from this study, including the following. There is value in using school time, money, and resources to improve student well-being, and these initiatives will likely also lead to improvements in academic attainment. Each school or educational setting should decide which definition of well-being works well in their context. Teacher well-being is a predictor of student well-being, and any well-being policies should emphasize ways to support teacher well-being. Lastly, a focus on subjective well-being and school life satisfaction is practical, measurable, and comprehensive and gives schools an opportunity to make a difference in the lives of young people.

Laura Taylor et al., « Well-Being in Education in Childhood and Adolescence (2022) » (Oxford: Wellbeing Research Centre, University of Oxford, 2022),

The stereotype that girls lack talent: A worldwide investigation

Abstract: Recent research has shown that there exist gender stereotypes that portray men as more brilliant or inherently talented than women. We provide a large-scale multinational investigation of these stereotypes and their relationship with other gender gaps. Using a survey question asked to more than 500,000 students in 72 countries, we build a measure of the stereotypes associating talent with men and show that they are present in almost all studied countries. These stereotypes are stronger among high-achieving students and in more developed or more gender-egalitarian countries. Similar patterns are observed for gender gaps in competitiveness, self-confidence, and willingness to work in an ICT (Information and Communication Technology)–related occupation. Statistical analysis suggests that these three latter gender gaps could be related to stereotypes associating talent with men. We conclude that these stereotypes should be more systematically considered as a possible explanation for the glass ceiling.

Clotilde Napp et Thomas Breda, « The stereotype that girls lack talent: A worldwide investigation », Science Advances 8, no 10 (s. d.): eabm3689,

From the Main Determinants of Self-Declared Minimum Income to the Measure of Sub-National Purchasing Power Parity

Abstract: Exploiting a French living condition survey from 2008 to 2015, this paper documents the main determinants of self-declared minimum income necessary to achieve decent living. Declared minimum income is strongly related to actual income. Isolating this relationship, it is possible to highlight the other determinants: family composition, housing tenure, socioprofessional status, region, and degree of urbanization. A sub-national measure of purchasing power parity is then developed. From a macroeconomic point of view, it leads to lower Gini index and higher rate of poverty in PPP terms than in nominal terms. However, these changes are heterogeneous, with increased poverty concentration around Paris, Mediterranean coast, and in the North. It is worth noting that the North, the poorest region in nominal terms, presents relatively low price of housing but a relatively high cost of living.

Clément Carbonnier, « From the Main Determinants of Self-Declared Minimum Income to the Measure of Sub-National Purchasing Power Parity », Review of Income and Wealth n/a, no n/a, consulté le 6 avril 2022,

Is Happiness U-Shaped Everywhere? A Methodological Reconsideration for Europe

Abstract: A recent contribution to research on age and well-being asserts that the impact of age on happiness is ‘u-shaped’ virtually everywhere. I evaluate that finding for European countries, considering whether it is robust to alternative methodological approaches. The analysis excludes control variables that are affected by age (noting that those variables are not antecedents of age) and explores the relationship via models that do not impose a quadratic functional form. The article shows that these alternative approaches do not produce a u-shape ‘everywhere’: u-shapes are evident for some countries, but for others, the pattern is quite different.

David Bartram, « Is Happiness U-Shaped Everywhere? A Methodological Reconsideration for Europe », National Institute Economic Review, 11 avril 2022, 1‑15,

Windows of developmental sensitivity to social media

Abstract: The relationship between social media use and life satisfaction changes across adolescent development. Our analyses of two UK datasets comprising 84,011 participants (10–80 years old) find that the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported estimates of social media use and life satisfaction ratings is most negative in younger adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in this relationship are only present during this time. Longitudinal analyses of 17,409 participants (10–21 years old) suggest distinct developmental windows of sensitivity to social media in adolescence, when higher estimated social media use predicts a decrease in life satisfaction ratings one year later (and vice-versa: lower estimated social media use predicts an increase in life satisfaction ratings). These windows occur at different ages for males (14–15 and 19 years old) and females (11–13 and 19 years old). Decreases in life satisfaction ratings also predicted subsequent increases in estimated social media use, however, these were not associated with age or sex.

Amy Orben et al., « Windows of Developmental Sensitivity to Social Media », Nature Communications 13, no 1 (28 mars 2022): 1649,

Are Social Media Ruining Our Lives? A Review of Meta-Analytic Evidence

Abstract: A growing number of studies have examined the psychological corollaries of using social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter (often called social media). The interdisciplinary research area and conflicting evidence from primary studies complicate the assessment of current scholarly knowledge in this field of high public attention. We review meta-analytic evidence on three hotly debated topics regarding the effects of SNSs: well-being, academic achievement, and narcissism. Meta-analyses from different laboratories draw a rather equivocal picture. They show small associations in the r = .10 range between the intensity of SNS use and loneliness, self-esteem, life satisfaction, or self-reported depression, and somewhat stronger links to a thin body ideal and higher social capital. There is no indication for potential devastating effects of social media on school achievement; social media use and school grades are unrelated for adolescents. The meta-analyses revealed small to moderate associations between narcissism and SNS use. In sum, meta-analytic evidence is not in support of dramatic claims relating social media use to mischief.

Markus Appel, Caroline Marker, et Timo Gnambs, « Are Social Media Ruining Our Lives? A Review of Meta-Analytic Evidence », Review of General Psychology 24, no 1 (1 mars 2020): 60‑74,

Wealth and subjective well-being in Germany

Abstract: Wealth in addition to income determines to a large degree an individual’s consumption opportunities and economic situation, which should in turn affect their subjective well-being. We analyse empirically the relationship between life satisfaction as an indicator of subjective well being and households’ wealth. We contribute to the scarce literature on wealth and well-being using micro-data from the German wealth survey, Panel on Household Finances – PHF, for 2010 and 2014. Using panel regression models, we find that (i) individuals’ life satisfaction is statistically significant and positively associated with their households’ wealth holdings, (ii) different components of wealth, such as real and financial assets, as well as debt, have differential effects on life satisfaction, (iii) both wealth levels and wealth holdings relative to other households matter for life satisfaction. Our study shows that it is important to consider wealth, in addition to income, when analysing individuals’ life satisfaction.

Antje Jantsch, Julia Le Blanc, Tobias Schmidt, “Wealth and subjective well-being in Germany”, Deutsche Bundesbank Dicussion Paper 11/2022.

Neighborhood socioeconomic status, relative household income and life satisfaction of Chinese mainland migrants in Hong Kong

Abstract: This paper examines the life satisfaction of Chinese mainland migrants compared to that of Hong Kong natives, using microdata from the 2011 Hong Kong Panel Study of Social Dynamics (HKPSSD) and aggregated neighborhood data from the 2011 Hong Kong Census. We find that Chinese mainland migrants have significantly lower life satisfaction than Hong Kong natives. As neighborhood socioeconomic status rises, life satisfaction increases, yet the positive effect is smaller for Chinese mainland migrants than for Hong Kong natives. Relative household income in the neighborhood is also positively related to life satisfaction, but the effect is larger for Chinese mainland migrants, suggesting that relative status affects life satisfaction much more for Chinese mainland migrants than for Hong Kong natives.

Donglin Zeng et Zhuoni Zhang, « Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Relative Household Income and Life Satisfaction of Chinese Mainland Migrants in Hong Kong », Chinese Journal of Sociology, 7 avril 2022, 2057150X221087030,

Generational Differences in Subjective Well-Being in Australia

Abstract: We test for differences in subjective well-being across four pre-defined generations in Australia born between 1928 and 1994: The Lucky Generation, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. We focus on overall life satisfaction and range of domain satisfactions. We find that Baby Boomers are less satisfied with life than thosce born before and after them. We observe similar patterns when considering domains such as finances and housing. However, differences in satisfaction with employment opportunities show the opposite pattern, with Baby Boomers and Generation X’s reporting higher satisfaction as compared to the Lucky Generation and especially those from Generation Y. Family and labour marketcv status have greater effects than cohort of birth on many of the domains studied; however, the cohort effects are significant and non-negligible, particularly concerning satisfaction with life, employment opportunities, and housing.

Ferdi Botha et Esperanza Vera-Toscano, « Generational Differences in Subjective Well-Being in Australia », Applied Research in Quality of Life, 29 mars 2022,

Well-being Changes from Year to Year: A Comparison of Current, Remembered and Predicted Life Satisfaction

Abstract: I study yearly changes in personal well-being combining data on current, retrospective and prospective life satisfaction from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Predicted and remembered changes in life satisfaction are both positive on average and match well, whereas the average year to year-change inferred from reports of current life satisfaction is negative. Retrospective assessments of past well-being are strongly influenced by current life satisfaction, significantly related to past life satisfaction and linked to past predictions of current satisfaction. Due to different problems related to the ordinal measurement scale, changes in subjective reference systems and recall ability, the analysis overall suggests that direct reports of intertemporal changes provide valuable additional information for the analysis of individual well-being.

Marcus Klemm, « Well-Being Changes from Year to Year: A Comparison of Current, Remembered and Predicted Life Satisfaction », Journal of Happiness Studies 23, no 4 (1 avril 2022): 1669‑81,

Vicarious Experiences of Major Discrimination and the Life Satisfaction of Black and White Adults from a Community Sample

Abstract: The racism-related stress framework argues that racism can influence the well-being of individuals through personal and vicarious experiences of discrimination, but studies on racism and health have primarily focused on understanding how personally experienced discrimination shapes these outcomes. Using data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (N = 1,252) the present study examines the racial differences in vicarious experiences of major discrimination among Black and non-Hispanic White adults from a community sample. Additionally, given longstanding evidence of racial disparities in life satisfaction, this study assesses whether the effects of vicarious experiences of discrimination influence overall life satisfaction of both Black and White adults. Results reveal significant racial differences in the types of vicarious discrimination that both groups are exposed to, and that Black adults are more exposed to vicarious experiences of major discrimination relative to White adults. Furthermore, findings indicate that vicarious experiences of discrimination, in addition to personal experiences of discrimination, are associated with lower levels of overall life satisfaction among Black adults, but not for White adults. This study extends the broader literature on racism-related stress and offers new insights for understanding racial differences in overall life satisfaction and well-being.

Myles D. Moody, « Vicarious Experiences of Major Discrimination and the Life Satisfaction of Black and White Adults from a Community Sample », Journal of Happiness Studies, 5 avril 2022,

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of cash transfers on subjective well-being and mental health in low- and middle-income countries

Abstract: Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly recognized as a scalable intervention to alleviate financial hardship. A large body of evidence evaluates the impact of CTs on subjective well-being (SWB) and mental health (MH) in low- and middle-income countries. We undertook a systematic review, quality appraisal and meta-analysis of 45 studies examining the impact of CTs on self-reported SWB and MH outcomes, covering a sample of 116,999 individuals. After an average follow-up time of two years, we find that CTs have a small but statistically significant positive effect on both SWB (Cohen’s d = 0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09, 0.18) and MH (d = 0.07, 95% CI 0.05, 0.09) among recipients. CT value, both relative to previous income and in absolute terms, is a strong predictor of the effect size. Based on this review and the large body of existing research demonstrating a positive impact of CTs on other outcomes (for example, health and income), there is evidence to suggest that CTs improve lives. To enable comparisons of the relative efficacy of CTs to improve MH and SWB, future research should meta-analyse the effects of alternative interventions in similar contexts.

Joel McGuire, Caspar Kaiser, et Anders M. Bach-Mortensen, « A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Cash Transfers on Subjective Well-Being and Mental Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries », Nature Human Behaviour 6, no 3 (mars 2022): 359‑70,

Adjusting for Publication Bias Reveals Mixed Evidence for the Impact of Cash Transfers on Subjective Well-Being and Mental Health

Abstract: Cash transfers are among the most popular poverty interventions. Indeed the charity evaluator GiveWell even lists GiveDirectly – a charity that directly sends your donations as cash to people in extreme poverty – as one of their top-rated charities. McGuire, Kaiser, and Bach-Mortensen1 conducted a timely and comprehensive meta-analysis on the impact of cash transfers on subjective well-being and mental health, featuring 45 studies with a combined total of 116,999 individuals. McGuire and colleagues1 conclude “CTs [cash transfers] have a small but statistically significant positive effect on both SWB [subjective well-being] (Cohen’s d = 0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09, 0.18) and MH [mental health] (d = 0.07, 95% CI 0.05, 0.09) among recipients.” We show that once publication bias is properly accounted for, this effect is – depending on the outcome measure – either greatly reduced or completely diminished.

František Bartoš et al., « Adjusting for Publication Bias Reveals Mixed Evidence for the Impact of Cash Transfers on Subjective Well-Being and Mental Health » (PsyArXiv, 8 février 2022),

Work-life Balance, Well-being, and Productivity with Remote Work during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan

Abstract: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic suddenly required that many people work remotely. Using the Survey on Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors Resulting from the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic, which was conducted by the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan, we examine the impact of the pandemic on work-life conditions in Japan, such as work productivity, subjective well-being, and the division of housework between spouses, during the past two years of this pandemic. Compared to prepandemic levels, both married men with children and married women with children reported that they have increased their share of both housework and childcare and the hours spent on housework and childcare, as well as the time spent with their family members. They also report that their job productivity has declined. Married men who worked remotely reported that, compared to prepandemic times, they had assumed a greater share of housework and were spending more time on it; in addition, they also shared more time with their family compared to those who did not work remotely. They also reported a greater level of life satisfaction than those who did not work remotely. In regard to work productivity, married men who worked remotely reported lower productivity than those who did not work remotely. So the increase in participation in household activities by married men who work remotely may have come at a cost of reduced work productivity. In contrast, married women with children who worked remotely reported that, compared to prepandemic times, they bore a greater share of both housework and childcare compared to those who did not work remotely; however, the time they spent on housework and childcare and the time spent with their family were not significantly different from those who did not work remotely. The life-satisfaction level of married women with children was also not significantly different from those who did not work remotely. In regard to work productivity, married women with children in regular employment who worked remotely reported higher productivity since the pandemic, while those in nonregular employment reported lower productivity. For both men and women, various well-being measures (including life satisfaction, job satisfaction, health satisfaction, easiness of childcare, social ties, and life enjoyment) all dropped significantly, compared to prepandemic levels, by May 2020, when the first survey was conducted soon after the pandemic had begun, but gradually returned to prepandemic levels in October 2021, when the fourth and most recent survey was conducted; however, three of the six well-being measures (namely, job satisfaction, social ties and life enjoyment) had not yet returned to prepandemic levels by October 2021. Unmarried men were lagging behind married men in their levels of well-being in October 2021, especially in their well-being regarding social ties and life enjoyment.

Emiko Usui, Work-life Balance, Well-being, and Productivity with Remote Work during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan », CIS Discussion paper series (Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, février 2022),

Who’s miserable now? Identifying clusters of people with the lowest subjective wellbeing in the UK

Abstract: Policymakers are generally most concerned about improving the lives of the worst-off members of society. Identifying these people can be challenging. We take various measures of subjective wellbeing (SWB) as indicators of the how well people are doing in life and employ Latent Class Analysis to identify those with greatest propensity to be among the worst-off in a nationally representative sample of over 215,000 people in the United Kingdom. Our results have important implications for how best to analyse data on SWB and who to target when looking to improve the lives of those with the lowest SWB.

Paul Dolan, Kate Laffan, et Alina Velias, « Who’s Miserable Now? Identifying Clusters of People with the Lowest Subjective Wellbeing in the UK », Social Choice and Welfare, 1 novembre 2021,

Working from Home during a Pandemic – A Discrete Choice Experiment in Poland

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed working from home from a rarity to a widely adopted job amenity. We study workers’ willingness to pay for working from home, and how it may be affected by subjective and objective assessments of COVID-19-related risks. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with more than 10,000 workers in Poland. We randomised wage differences between otherwise identical home- and office-based jobs. We also randomised an information provision treatment in which we informed 50% of workers about the level of exposure to contagion in their occupation, and how it may be reduced by working from home. We found that the demand for working from home was substantial – the majority of participants would prefer to work from home if they were offered the same wage for a home-based job as they would earn in an office-based job. On average, workers would sacrifice 5.1% of their earnings for the option to work from home, especially for 2-3 days a week (7.3%) rather than 5 days a week (2.8%). We also found that the perception of COVID-19 mattered, as workers who perceived it as a threat were willing to give up a much higher share of their earnings than those who did not. However, the willingness to pay did not differ significantly between individuals depending on whether their occupation had a high or a low level of exposure, or between individuals treated in the information experiment and those in the control group.

« Working from Home during a Pandemic – A Discrete Choice Experiment in Poland », consulté le 26 avril 2022,

Global evidence of expressed sentiment alterations during the COVID-19 pandemic

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented burdens on people’s physical health and subjective well-being. While countries worldwide have developed platforms to track the evolution of COVID-19 infections and deaths, frequent global measurements of affective states to gauge the emotional impacts of pandemic and related policy interventions remain scarce. Using 654 million geotagged social media posts in over 100 countries, covering 74% of world population, coupled with state-of-the-art natural language processing techniques, we develop a global dataset of expressed sentiment indices to track national- and subnational-level affective states on a daily basis. We present two motivating applications using data from the first wave of COVID-19 (from 1 January to 31 May 2020). First, using regression discontinuity design, we provide consistent evidence that COVID-19 outbreaks caused steep declines in expressed sentiment globally, followed by asymmetric, slower recoveries. Second, applying synthetic control methods, we find moderate to no effects of lockdown policies on expressed sentiment, with large heterogeneity across countries. This study shows how social media data, when coupled with machine learning techniques, can provide real-time measurements of affective states.

Jianghao Wang et al., « Global Evidence of Expressed Sentiment Alterations during the COVID-19 Pandemic », Nature Human Behaviour 6, no 3 (mars 2022): 349‑58,

Les déterminants du consentement à l’impôt en France : Analyse de l’enquête du Conseil des prélèvements obligatoires 2021

Abstract : Cet article présente les résultats d’une enquête menée en septembre 2021 auprès d’un échantillon représentatif de Français sur le consentement à l’impôt. Plusieurs mesures du consentement sont définies et mises en regard avec les caractéristiques socio-économiques, le niveau de connaissance du système fiscal, la confiance accordée dans les institutions, la satisfaction quant à l’utilisation de l’argent public et l’imposition du patrimoine, et la perception de la justice du système actuel par les enquêtés. Après une présentation descriptive des réponses, une analyse économétrique révèle que les déterminants socio-économiques du consentement varient d’une mesure à l’autre, mais que les autres déterminants sont communs en signe et en amplitude. La connaissance, la confiance, et la perception d’une bonne utilisation de l’argent public sont fortement corrélées au consentement à l’impôt. La question de la justice fiscale joue aussi un rôle important puisque la perception d’une « juste » redistribution et d’une « juste » contribution des différents niveaux de revenus est positivement corrélée au consentement. A l’inverse, l’impression que certains groupes sont trop mis à contribution et d’autres pas assez est négativement corrélée au consentement à l’impôt.

Pierre C. Boyer, Thibault Ingrand, et Christophe Strassel, « Les Déterminants Du Consentement à l’impôt En France : Analyse de l’enquête Du Conseil Des Prélèvements Obligatoires 2021 », Working Papers, Working Papers (Center for Research in Economics and Statistics, 22 avril 2022),

A measure of well-being efficiency based on the World Happiness Report

Abstract: We propose a measure of well-being efficiency to assess countries’ ability to transform inputs into subjective well-being (Cantril ladder). We use the six inputs (real GDP per capita, healthy life expectancy, social support, freedom of choice, absence of corruption, and generosity) identified in the World Happiness Reports and apply Data Envelopment Analysis to a sample of 126 countries. Efficiency scores reveal that high ranking subjective well-being countries, such as the Nordics, are not strictly the most efficient ones. Also, the scores are uncorrelated with economic efficiency. This means that the implicit assumption that economic efficiency promotes well-being is not supported. Well-being efficiency can be improved by changing the amount (scale) or composition of inputs and their use (technical efficiency). For instance countries with lower unemployment, and greater healthy life expectancy and optimism are more efficient.

Francesco Sarracino et Kelsey O’Connor, « A measure of well-being efficiency based on the World Happiness Report », GLO Discussion Paper Series (Global Labor Organization (GLO), 2022),

The Female Happiness Paradox

Abstract: Using data across countries and over time we show that women are unhappier than men in unhappiness and negative affect equations, irrespective of the measure used – anxiety, depression, fearfulness, sadness, loneliness, anger – and they have more days with bad mental health and more restless sleep. Women are also less satisfied with many aspects of their lives such as democracy, the economy, the state of education and health services. They are also less happy in the moment in terms of peace and calm, cheerfulness, feeling active, vigorous, fresh and rested. However, prior evidence on gender differences in happiness and life satisfaction is less clear cut. Differences vary over time, location, and with model specification and the inclusion of controls especially marital status. We also show that there are significant variations by month in happiness data regarding whether males are happier than females but find little variation by month in unhappiness data. It matters which months are sampled when measuring positive affect but not with negative affect. These monthly data reveal that women’s happiness was more adversely affected by the COVID shock than men’s, but also that women’s happiness rebounded more quickly suggesting resilience. As a result, we now find strong evidence that males have higher levels of both happiness and life satisfaction in recent years even before the onset of pandemic. As in the past they continue to have lower levels of unhappiness. A detailed analysis of several data files, with various metrics, for the UK confirms that men now are happier than women.

David Blanchflower et Alex Bryson, « The Female Happiness Paradox », DoQSS Working Paper (Quantitative Social Science – UCL Social Research Institute, University College London, 1 avril 2022),