Vous avez sans doute déjà vu l’annonce : nous vous attendons le vendredi 15 avril à 09h30 pour la présentation de notre rapport Le Bien-être en France. Il comprend cette année une analyse des évolutions trimestrielles du bien-être sur les deux dernières années et deux focus trimestriels, un sur la perception des risques et l’autre sur le bien-être dans le système scolaire. Nous espérons vous retrouver nombreux en ligne !
Nous avons par ailleurs publié en mars une Note qui s’intéresse de plus près aux personnes les plus satisfaites et les moins satisfaites sur chacune des dimensions de notre tableau de bord. Loin d’une France polarisée, cette analyse montre une multiplicité des lignes de séparations, qui ne dessinent pas des groupes uniformément heureux ou malheureux. Nous nous sommes aussi livrés à une rapide lecture de l’édition 2022 du World Happiness Report.
Le Bien-être en France – Rapport 2021
Comme vous l’avez sans doute déjà noté, nous vous donnons rendez-vous le vendredi 15 avril à 09h30 pour découvrir la deuxième édition de notre rapport annuel sur le bien-être en France. Cette année, nous reviendrons sur la manière dont les Français ont traversé deux ans de pandémie, sur leur rapport aux grands risques et sur le bien-être dans le système scolaire.
France heureuse, France malheureuse
Dans cette Note, nous nous intéressons aux extrémités de la distribution du bien-être en France : qui sont les très satisfaits et les très insatisfaits ? À rebours d’une France polarisée, nous observons que l’insatisfaction se porte souvent sur un nombre limité de domaines, alors que la grande satisfaction est un état plus général. Les dimensions d’âge, de genre et de revenu sont évidemment pertinentes, mais structurent de manière très différente les domaines du bien-être subjectif. Il n’y a ainsi pas une ligne de fracture entre une France heureuse et une France malheureuse, mais un entrelac de contrastes qui peignent un portrait beaucoup plus nuancé du pays.
M. Perona, « France heureuse, France malheureuse », Note de l’Observatoire du bien-être, 2022-04, 14 mars 2022
Billet OBE : World Happiness Report 2022 – grandes lignes et remarques
Pour le Carnet de l’Observatoire, nous avons fait un parcours rapide du World Happiness Report 2022, publié le 18 mars dernier. Pensant que cela pourrait intéresser plus largement le public de nos Notes, nous inaugurons un nouveau format sur le site de l’Observatoire, celui du billet.
M. Perona, « Billet OBE : World Happiness Report 2022 – grandes lignes et remarques », 24 mars 2022
Femmes et hommes, l’égalité en question
Dans cet ouvrage publié le 03 mars dernier, l’Insee regroupe et synthétise un grand nombre d’analyse sur ce thème. Nous relevons particulièrement le dossier thématique sur l’enseignement ainsi que la section sur la qualité de vie, qui font un large usage des métriques subjectives pour comprendre les écarts entre genres.
Insee, Femmes et hommes, l’égalité en question, édition 2022, 03 mars 2022.
ESS round 12 rotating modules
Les équipes de recherche ont jusqu’au 06 mai pour déposer leurs proposition de modules pour la vague 12 (2025) de l’Enquête sociale européenne.
Lu sur le web
Drinking Alone: Local Socio-Cultural Degradation and Radical Right Support—The Case of British Pub Closures
Abstract: Little is known about how local context influences radical right voting. This paper advances the theory that the degradation of local socio-cultural hubs is linked to radical right support by contributing to loss of community and cultural identity. I examine this thesis by exploiting an original dataset on British community pub closures. I argue that the disappearance of community pubs triggers social isolation and signals the decline of the British working class condition, which is associated with UKIP support. Combining district-level data with UK panel data (2013–2016), I show that individuals living in districts that experience one additional community pub closure (relative to the total number of pubs per district) are more likely to support UKIP than any other party by 4.3 percentage points. The effect is magnified under conditions of material deprivation. This paper highlights the significance of local socio-cultural degradation as a mechanism to explain radical right support.
Diane Bolet, « Drinking Alone: Local Socio-Cultural Degradation and Radical Right Support—The Case of British Pub Closures », Comparative Political Studies 54, no 9 (1 août 2021): 1653‑92, https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414021997158
Economic hardship, institutions and subjective well-being in Latin America
Abstract: We use the 2016-17 wave of the LAPOP AmericasBarometer survey to investigate the relationship between economic hardship and subjective well-being (SWB) for Latin America. In addition, we analyze whether the negative effect of economic hardship on SWB can be mitigated by immaterial resources rather than material resources. Analogous to Reeskens and Vandecasteele (2017) regarding Europe, we compare the impact of the institutions social trust, religiosity, and confidence in politics with the impact of welfare state expenditures in Latin America. Our results also show that economic hardship has a negative effect on subjective wellbeing. In contrast to the findings for Europe, the negative effect of economic hardship can be strengthened or attenuated depending on the degree of religiosity and trustworthiness of the community. The moderating effect of confidence in politics was not found. Concerning the moderating influence of welfare state expenditure, our findings are partly in line with the results for Europe. In Europe a larger social welfare state suppresses the informal institutions social contacts and confidence in politics whereas in Latin America a larger social welfare state overturns interpersonal trust (as a proxy for social contacts) and religiosity. Hence, we also find evidence for the crowding out hypothesis, namely that in more generous welfare states one is less dependent on their immaterial resources for finding happiness.
Y. Grift, Annette van den Berg, et Tina Dulam, « Economic hardship, institutions and subjective well-being in Latin America », Working Paper (Utrecht School of Economics, mars 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/usetkiwps/2106.htm
The Relationship between Pro-environmental Behavior, Economic Preferences, and Life Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Germany
Abstract: Based on representative data for 1614 citizens in Germany, this paper empirically examines the relationship between different types of environmental protection activities and subjective well-being (SWB) in terms of life satisfaction by specifically considering the role of economic preferences for this relationship. With respect to pro-environmental behavior, we differentiate between stated non-climate environmental and climate protection activities as well as revealed climate protection activities, which are measured in an incentivized donation experiment and thus are more meaningful than stated climate protection activities. Our empirical analysis reveals that climate protection activities are more robustly and more strongly positively correlated with life satisfaction than non-climate environmental protection activities. Furthermore, not only stated climate protection activities, but also revealed climate protection activities are significantly positively correlated with life satisfaction. These results suggest that climate protection activities lead to stronger warm glow feelings and reputation gains than non-climate environmental protection activities. Our empirical analysis additionally shows that economic preferences play an important role since especially patience and trust, but also risk-taking preferences and (less robust) altruism are significantly positively correlated with life satisfaction. In particular, economic preferences are also relevant for the relationship between pro-environmental behavior and life satisfaction. When economic preferences are included in the econometric analysis, the estimated correlations between climate protection activities and life satisfaction become weaker and the estimated correlation between non-climate environmental protection activities and life satisfaction even becomes insignificant. These results strongly suggest omitted variable biases in cross-sectional econometric analyses of the relationship between pro-environmental behavior and SWB when economic preferences are not included as control variables.
Thilo K. G. Haverkamp, Heinz Welsch, et Andreas Ziegler, « The Relationship between Pro-environmental Behavior, Economic Preferences, and Life Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Germany », MAGKS Papers on Economics (Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung), 2022), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/marmagkse/202204.htm
Lifestyle and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Delayed Gratification
Abstract: This paper considers the impact of two measures of lifestyle — the consumption of fruit and vegetables and doing exercise — on individual well-being. Since lifestyle is likely to be endogenous, we correct for this by using two dimensions of delayed gratification as instruments. The ability to delay gratification enables individuals to give greater weight to the investment component of lifestyle decisions rather than merely the affective component. Our analysis is based on the UK Understanding Society Data, which covers 40,000 UK households over time. We find that the two delayed gratification instruments are positive and significant in influencing lifestyle. In Stage 2, we find that fruit and vegetable consumption and sports activity increase life satisfaction, though the impacts vary for men and women. These results are robust across income quartiles, region, gender, education and age groups.
Adelina Gschwandtner, Sarah Jewell, et Uma S. Kambhampati, « Lifestyle and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Delayed Gratification », Journal of Happiness Studies, 20 août 2021, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-021-00440-y
Analyzing subjective well-being data with misclassification
Abstract: We use novel nonparametric techniques to test for the presence of non-classical measurement error in reported life satisfaction (LS) and study the potential effects from ignoring it. Our dataset comes from Wave 3 of the UK Understanding Society that is surveyed from 35,000 British households. Our test finds evidence of measurement error in reported LS for the entire dataset as well as for 26 out of 32 socioeconomic subgroups in the sample. We estimate the joint distribution of reported and latent LS nonparametrically in order to understand the misreporting behavior. We show this distribution can then be used to estimate parametric models of latent LS. We find measurement error bias is not severe enough to distort the main drivers of LS. But there is an important difference that is policy relevant. We find women tend to over-report their latent LS relative to men. This may help explain the gender puzzle that questions why women are reportedly happier than men despite being worse off on objective outcomes such as income and employment.
Ekaterina Oparina et Sorawoot Srisuma, « Analyzing subjective well-being data with misclassification », LSE Research Online Documents on Economics (London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library, 21 décembre 2020), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/ehllserod/108543.htm
Subjective well-being and climate change: Evidence for Portugal
Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of air pollution, climate conditions, and extreme weather events on subjective well-being across the Portuguese regions through estimating an ordered probit model. The estimation applies data at the individual level from the 8th and 9th waves of the European Social Survey, along with an air quality indicator, environmental variables, national forest inventory, and a study about the possible future effects of the sea-level rise on vulnerable areas and people living therein. Even after controlling for socio-economic variables and personal traits, the results suggest the existence of differences between regional welfare levels. Air pollution has a negative impact on life satisfaction due to its bad impacts on health (aggravating the condition of individuals with heart and lung diseases). The paper’s key finding is to show that at the regional level, both past (forest fires) and «possible» future (floods due to sea-level rise) extreme weather events may impact the current welfare level. Also, assessments of implicit willingness do to pay demonstrate that climate change effects have a relevant impact on their quality of life nowadays.
Ary José A. Souza-Jr., « Subjective well-being and climate change: Evidence for Portugal », Working Papers REM (ISEG – Lisbon School of Economics and Management, REM, Universidade de Lisboa, février 2022), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/iseremwps/wp02132022.htm
Leveraging social cognition to promote effective climate change mitigation
Abstract: Effective climate change mitigation is a social dilemma: the benefits are shared collectively but the costs are often private. To solve this dilemma, we argue that we must pay close attention to the nature and workings of human cooperation. We review three social cognition mechanisms that regulate cooperation: norm detection, reputation management and fairness computation. We show that each of these cognitive mechanisms can stand in the way of pro-environmental behaviours and limit the impact of environmental policies. At the same time, the very same mechanisms can be leveraged as powerful solutions for an effective climate change mitigation.
Mélusine Boon-Falleur et al., « Leveraging Social Cognition to Promote Effective Climate Change Mitigation », Nature Climate Change, 7 mars 2022, 1‑7, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-022-01312-w
Stop With the Questions Already! Does Data Quality Suffer for Scales Positioned Near the End of a Lengthy Questionnaire?
Abstract: Research questionnaires frequently include dozens—if not hundreds—of self-report items. Lengthy questionnaires, however, are often a necessity. In some cases, they are needed to assess the many variables found in a complex model; in other cases, they are the result of the inclusion of a single lengthy measure. This raises an important question: Do participants provide accurate responses to measures positioned at the end of a lengthy questionnaire? One possibility is that participants experience fatigue during questionnaire completion, leading them to engage in careless responding, and thus compromising the accuracy of their responses. Another possibility is that even the longest research questionnaires are generally too short to evoke participant fatigue. This latter possibility suggests that participants are largely able to maintain their attention while completing most questionnaires. Given the lack of clarity on this issue, we conducted two experiments (Study 1 N = 244; Study 2 N = 461) in which we randomly assigned each participant to complete a block of target scales at either the beginning or the end of a lengthy (> 300-item) questionnaire. Each participant also recruited an informant who provided reports of the participant’s personality, attitudes, and behaviors. These informant data allowed us to examine the effects of the experimental manipulation on the target scales’ convergent and criterion-related validity. The findings of both studies indicated that the target scales performed similarly across the two conditions. Given the ubiquity of lengthy questionnaires, these findings have far-reaching practical implications.
Nathan A. Bowling, Anthony M. Gibson, et Justin A. DeSimone, « Stop With the Questions Already! Does Data Quality Suffer for Scales Positioned Near the End of a Lengthy Questionnaire? », Journal of Business and Psychology, 23 janvier 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-021-09787-8
Disappointed Expectations: Downward Mobility and Electoral Change
Abstract: Postindustrial occupational change has ended an era of unprecedented upward mobility. We examine the political implications of this immense structural shift by introducing the concept of status discordance, which we operationalize as the difference between status expectations formed during childhood and outcomes realized in adulthood. We leverage German household panel data and predictive modeling to provide empirical estimates of status expectations based on childhood circumstances and parental background. The analysis reveals that political dissatisfaction is widespread among voters who fall short of intergenerational status expectations. We show that such dissatisfaction is associated with higher abstention rates, less mainstream party support, and more radical voting. Moreover, we explore variation in status discordance by gender, education, and occupation, which influence the choice between radical left and right parties. Our findings highlight how expectations about opportunities underlie generational voting patterns and shed light on the ongoing breakdown of the postwar political consensus.
Thomas Kurer et Briitta Van Staalduinen, « Disappointed Expectations: Downward Mobility and Electoral Change », American Political Science Review, 9 mars 2022, 1‑17, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055422000077
Migration of dual-earner couples: a subjective wellbeing approach
Abstract: We model push factors that determine the domestic migration decisions for couples, with emphasis on dual-earner different-sex couples. Unlike many prior studies that concentrate on labour market determinants of migration, we place the subjective well-being (SWB) reported by each partner at centre stage. We test whether migration determinants differ depending on whether the female is the main breadwinner in a dual-earner couple. We also test if determinants differ when either the female or the male is the sole earner within a couple. The evidence shows that a couple is more likely to migrate if she reports low SWB in the year prior to migration, with the strength of this effect varying depending on the earnings status of each partner prior to migration. Male SWB does not have the same impact on the migration choice although we find some evidence that pre-migration male wages impact the migration decision.
Diana Tam et Arthur Grimes, « Migration of Dual-Earner Couples: A Subjective Wellbeing Approach », Review of Economics of the Household, 18 janvier 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11150-021-09598-z
Are Retirees More Satisfied? Anticipation and Adaptation Effects: A Causal Panel Analysis of German Statutory Insured and Civil Service Pensioners
Abstract: This study contributes to the subjective well-being and retirement literature by quantifying life satisfaction before (4) and after retirement (9+) periods asking: Are retirees more satisfied? Fixed-effects and causal instrumental variables (IV) estimates with individual longitudinal data of the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP, 33 waves) analyze anticipation and adaptation retirement effects of statutory insured and civil service pensioners in Germany. Main findings: The occupational situation absorbs a positive personal and family influence. There are positive anticipation effects before retirement followed by adaptation instantly when retired both for statutory insured and civil service pensioners. With neutral respectively negative post-retirement adaptation there is no positive retirement effect for both pensioner groups. In short: retirees are not more satisfied, a remarkable result both for statutory insured and civil service pensioners.
Joachim Merz, « Are Retirees More Satisfied? Anticipation and Adaptation Effects: A Causal Panel Analysis of German Statutory Insured and Civil Service Pensioners », IZA Discussion Papers, IZA Discussion Papers (Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), mars 2022), https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp15140.html
Time use and happiness: Evidence across three decades
Abstract: We use large-scale diary data from a representative sample of Americans to proxy welfare at the level of individual activities. We make three contributions. First, we examine the association between individual activities and happiness, and show how this association has changed over time. Compared to 1985, domestic work and social care produce more happiness today. Watching TV produces less happiness today than it used to. Second, we combine activity-level data on happiness and time allocation to construct a measure of ‘time-weighted happiness’. We then analyse historical trends in this measure across population groups, particularly gender. We observe that, over the last 35 years, women’s time-weighted happiness has improved significantly relative to men’s. This trend is largely driven by gendered shifts in time allocation, rather than heterogenous trends in the enjoyability of individual activities. Our result is in stark contrast to previous work which showed a decline in women’s relative wellbeing. To explain this, our third contribution is to compare the determinants of life satisfaction – a global measure on which most previous work is built – with our measure of time-weighted happiness. Time-weighted happiness and life satisfaction turn out to only be weakly correlated. Moreover, although we obtain strong associations of income and employment status with life satisfaction, no such associations can be observed for time-weighted happiness. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between happiness as experienced in time and more global wellbeing measures. Finally, we verify the robustness our results by replicating them in data from the United Kingdom and show that our results are robust to alternative assumptions about how people use happiness scales.
Jeehoon Han et Caspar Kaiser, « Time use and happiness: Evidence across three decades », SocArXiv (Center for Open Science, 3 octobre 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/osfsocarx/qjdmu.htm