Newsletter de l’Observatoire du Bien-être n°51 – Mars 2022

La guerre en Ukraine occupe certainement une large part de nos préoccupations à tous, ce qui rend cette newsletter un peu étrange à envoyer.

L’actualité de février a pourtant été riche dans notre domaine. Pour la première fois, nous mobilisons l’enquête CoviPrev de Santé Publique France pour mieux comprendre les ressorts de l’hésitation vaccinale. Dans le même temps, l’Insee apporte une précieuse contribution à la vision territoriale du bien-être en France. Nous relevons également une riche actualité sur les conséquences de l’épidémie – toujours là – lais aussi sur les stéréotypes de genre, les écrans ou les conditions de travail.

Vous vous souvenez de notre Rapport 2020 sur le bien-être en France ? Nous sommes en train de finaliser l’édition 2021, vous devriez recevoir très bientôt une invitation à la conférence de présentation. Si vous connaissez des personnes susceptibles d’être intéressées, n’hésitez pas à nous donner leur contact.

Observatoire

Note de l’Observatoire du Bien-être n°2022-03 : Défiance, insatisfaction et colère, les sources du refus de la vaccination

Pour notre troisième Note de l’année, nous mobilisons pour la première fois les données détaillés de l’enquête CoviPrev de Santé Publique France. Elles nous permettent de mettre en relation l’hésitation vaccinale et les motifs que nous explorons depuis plusieurs années maintenant de la faible satisfaction dans la vie, de la colère et de la défiance dans les institutions.

Dylan Alezra, Mathieu Perona et Claudia Senik, « Défiance, insatisfaction et colère : les sources du refus de la vaccination », 2022-03, 16 février 2022.

Trust: The other factor in the Covid-19 crisis

Abstract: Covid-19 has demonstrated how future upheavals – from pandemics to climate change – will require strong cooperation between all actors, public and private. This column argues that trust, whether between people or in government and scientists, is a critical factor in addressing the challenges of a crisis like Covid-19. While health characteristics explain one-quarter of the cross-country heterogeneity in a combined index of GDP growth and health outcomes during the crisis, trust in government alone accounts for two-thirds of the variance.

Yann Algan, Daniel Cohen, Madeleine Péron, “Trust: The other factor in the Covid-19 crisis”, VoxEU, 02 February 2022.

Bien-être en France : une vision par territoires

Vivre en Île-de-France a un effet négatif sur la satisfaction dans la vie

Résumé : La satisfaction dans la vie dépend principalement des caractéristiques individuelles et familiales. Une fois ces caractéristiques prises en compte, le lieu d’habitation influe également sur le bien-être déclaré. À caractéristiques identiques, la satisfaction dans la vie est la plus faible à Paris et plus généralement en Île-de-France. Son niveau le plus élevé est déclaré dans les aires d’attraction des villes de 200 000 à 700 000 habitants. Les habitants de la plupart des départements de la façade ouest sont également plus satisfaits que dans le reste du pays. La satisfaction croît en outre avec la richesse de la commune mais son impact est nettement plus faible que celui du niveau de vie individuel. Les chômeurs sont moins satisfaits que l’ensemble de la population, surtout lorsqu’ils résident dans des communes où le taux de chômage est élevé. Un effet similaire est observé pour les personnes nées à l’étranger.

Entre 2010-2012 et 2017-2019, le niveau de satisfaction générale dans la vie est resté stable à Paris et dans les plus grands pôles urbains et a légèrement diminué ailleurs.

François Gleizes, Stéphane Legleye, Anne Pla, « Vivre en Île-de-France a un effet négatif sur la satisfaction dans la vie », Insee Analyses, 71, 09 février 2022

The challenge of a sustainable territorial inclusion in France

Abstract: A successful transition towards a more sustainable society cannot afford to ignore the existing vulnerabilities. Apart from social and economic inequalities, territorial disparities represent a specific issue that the sustainability transition can either reinforce or mitigate. In a country like France, the Yellow Vests movement revealed the necessity of a more inclusive path to sustainability. Building on existing literature, we propose to analyze territorial inequalities and challenges in a context of sustainable development objectives, focusing on several key determinants of well-being (employment, education, and, in a more prospective manner, health and social relations). We suggest some perspectives to integrate territorial inclusion challenges into the sustainable development framework and policy design.

Madeleine Péron, “The challenge of a sustainable territorial inclusion in France”, European Chair for Sustainable Development and Climate Transition at Sciences Po, Feb. 2022

World Happiness Report 2022

Le webminaire de présentation de l’édition 2022 du World Happiness Report aura lieu le 18 mars prochain, à partir de 14h00 (heure de Paris).

Lien d’inscription

Données

SHARE 8.0 est disponible

Le consortium SHARE a annoncé le 10 février dernier la mise à disposition de la version 8.0 de ses données sur le vieillissement en Europe. Cette version inclut en particulier la deuxième vague du module dédié au Covid-19.

ESS Vague 12 : appel à propositions

L’appel à proposition pour l’insertion de questions dans la vague 12 (2025) de l’Enquête Sociale Européenne est ouvert, du 14 février au 6 mai 2022.

Lu sur le web

Levelling up and measuring wellbeing

Le 02 février, le gouvernement britannique a publié un document d’orientation Levelling Up the United Kigdom, qui définit les ambitions du pays à l’horizon 2025-2030. Ces ambitions sont déclinées en missions, avec des indicateurs quantitatifs. La Mission 8 porte spécifiquement sur le bien-être :

Mission 8. By 2030, well-being will have improved in every area of the UK, with the gap between top performing and other areas closing.”

Pour cette mission, la satisfaction dans la vie à l’échelle des collectivités locales constituera l’indicateur-clef. Cette démarche fait donc passer la satisfaction de vie du statut d’indicateur à celui d’objectif explicite de l’action publique outre-manche.

Le What Works Centre Wellbeing propose une analyse plus détaillée des enjeux de cette mission.

A 680,000-person megastudy of nudges to encourage vaccination in pharmacies

Abstract: Encouraging vaccination is a pressing policy problem. To assess whether text-based reminders can encourage pharmacy vaccination and what kinds of messages work best, we conducted a megastudy. We randomly assigned 689,693 Walmart pharmacy patients to receive one of 22 different text reminders using a variety of different behavioral science principles to nudge flu vaccination or to a business-as-usual control condition that received no messages. We found that the reminder texts that we tested increased pharmacy vaccination rates by an average of 2.0 percentage points, or 6.8%, over a 3-mo follow-up period. The most-effective messages reminded patients that a flu shot was waiting for them and delivered reminders on multiple days. The top-performing intervention included two texts delivered 3 d apart and communicated to patients that a vaccine was “waiting for you.” Neither experts nor lay people anticipated that this would be the best-performing treatment, underscoring the value of simultaneously testing many different nudges in a highly powered megastudy.

Katherine L. Milkman et al., “A 680,000-person megastudy of nudges to encourage vaccination in pharmacies”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Feb 2022, 119 (6) e2115126119; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115126119

Le moral des jeunes fortement affecté par la crise sanitaire

Résumé : La crise sanitaire pèse fortement sur le moral des jeunes : interrogés en mars et avril 2021, ils sont 59 % à avoir le sentiment que leur vie actuelle correspond à leurs attentes, soit le plus bas niveau observé depuis la création du Baromètre DJEPVA sur la jeunesse en 2016. Un jeune sur deux considère ainsi la pandémie comme une période très pénible à vivre. Les jeunes interrogés mettent particulièrement en avant les difficultés d’ordre psychologique et le sentiment d’isolement, devant les difficultés socio-économiques. Dans ce contexte incertain, les attentes des jeunes sont fortes vis-à-vis des pouvoirs publics : 29 % d’entre eux aimeraient que les pouvoirs publics les aident à trouver un emploi, en hausse de huit points par rapport à 2020. La pandémie n’a en outre pas freiné l’engagement associatif ou bénévole des jeunes, le bénévolat régulier s’étant même accru par rapport à début 2020.

L. Brice Mansencal, « Le moral des jeunes fortement affecté par la crise sanitaire », INJEP Analyses & Synthèses, 54, 21/01/2022

The environmental cost of the international job market for economists

Abstract: We provide an estimate of the environmental impact of the recruitment system in the economics profession, known as the “international job market for economists”. Each year, most graduating PhDs seeking jobs in academia, government, or companies participate in this job market. The market follows a standardized process, where candidates are pre-screened in a short interview which takes place at an annual meeting in Europe or in the United States. Most interviews are arranged via a non-profit online platform, econjobmarket.org, which kindly agreed to share its anonymized data with us. Using this dataset, we estimate the individual environmental impact of 1,057 candidates and one hundred recruitment committees who attended the EEA and AEA meetings in December 2019 and January 2020. We calculate that this pre-screening system generated the equivalent of about 4,000 tons of avoidable CO2-eq and a comprehensive economic cost over e3.5 million. We contrast this overall assessment against three counterfactual scenarios: a more efficient in-person system, a hybrid system (where videoconference is used for some candidates) and a fully online system (as it happened in 2020-21 due to the COVID-19 pandemic). Overall, the study can offer useful information to shape future recruitment standards in a more sustainable way.

Olivier Chanel, Alberto Prati and Morgan Raux, “The environmental cost of the international job market for economists”, CEP Discussion Paper, 1819, 2021

“The Better You Feel, the Harder You Fall”: Health Perception Biases and Mental Health among Chinese Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract: The health risks of the current COVID-19 pandemic, together with the drastic mitigation measures taken in many affected nations, pose an obvious threat to public mental health. The social science literature has already established a clear link between mental health and sociodemographic as well as economic factors, and a growing number of studies investigate the role of biased risk perceptions. To assess this role in the context of COVID-19, this study first implements survey-based measures of over- and underconfidence in the health self-perceptions among Chinese adults during the pandemic. Then, it analyzes their relation to three mental health outcomes: life satisfaction, happiness, and depression (as measured by the CES-D). We show that the health overconfidence displayed by approximately 30% of the survey respondents is a clear risk factor for mental health problems; it is a statistically significant predictor of depression and low levels of happiness and life satisfaction. We also document that these effects are stronger in regions that experienced higher numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths. Recent research has shown that health overconfidence can influence risky behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, which may be particularly detrimental during a pandemic. Our results also offer clear guidelines for the implementation of effective interventions to temper overconfidence, particularly in uncontrollable situations like the COVID-19 pandemic.

Nie, Peng, Wang, Lu, Dragone, Davide, Lu, Haiyang, Sousa-Poza, Alfonso and Ziebarth, Nicolas, (2021), “The Better You Feel, the Harder You Fall”: Health Perception Biases and Mental Health among Chinese Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic, No 14905, IZA Discussion Papers, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

Everyday Administrative Burdens and Inequality

Abstract: Administrative burdens may deepen inequality by creating costly experiences for vulnerable groups. Research to date typically focuses on how burdens affect decisions in specific policy contexts, thus little is known about everyday experiences of burdens and their distribution in society. This is the first study to document everyday administrative experiences, accounting for time and emotional costs across ten domains: tax, retirement, government benefits, bills, goods and services, savings, debt, health, childcare, and adult care. Results from 2,243 UK adults show that administrative tasks are a significant part of life (one hour per day). Time and emotional costs vary by domain; government benefits emerge as particularly costly. There is evidence that administrative burdens are regressive, not only through their effects on decisions, but through their unequal distribution in society. Those in poor health and financial insecurity focus on tasks salient to them (e.g. benefits, health, debt), but are less likely to engage in beneficial longer-term tasks (e.g. savings, retirement), and suffer higher emotional costs from engaging in tasks relevant to their disadvantage, compared to non-disadvantaged groups. A choice experiment shows that (hypothetical) burdens discourage beneficial action in general, but even more so for some disadvantaged groups.

Lucie Martin, Liam Delaney, Orla Doyle, “Everyday Administrative Burdens and Inequality”, UCD Centre for Economic Research WP Series, WP22/05, Feb. 2022

The impact of working from home on productivity, happiness, and careers: Views of leading economists

Abstract: The pandemic has led to a big shift to working from home in occupations where the jobs, or some part of them, can be done remotely. The IGM Forum at Chicago Booth asked its panels of leading US and European economists about the potential impact of this continuing over the longer term. As this column reports, a majority of the experts consider that staff who work two days a week from home are, on average, likely to report higher levels of job satisfaction over the longer term. The respondents are more uncertain about the long-term impact on productivity and women’s career progression relative to their male counterparts.

Romesh Vaitilingam, « The impact of working from home on productivity, happiness, and careers: Views of leading economists », VoxEU.org (blog), 4 février 2022.

La télévision et le bien-être

François Lévèque a fait pour The Conversation une synthèse bienvenue sur le temps passé devant la télévision et ses relations – pas toujours évidentes – avec le bien-être subjectif. L’occasion de relire les classiques du domaine.

François Lévêque, « La Télé Rend-Elle Heureux ? », The Conversation, consulté le 11 février 2022, http://theconversation.com/la-tele-rend-elle-heureux-176620.

Luigino Bruni et Luca Stanca, « Income Aspirations, Television and Happiness: Evidence from the World Values Survey », Kyklos 59, no 2 (2006): 209‑25.

Bruno S. Frey, Christine Benesch, et Alois Stutzer, « Does Watching TV Make Us Happy? », Journal of Economic Psychology 28, no 3 (1 juin 2007): 283‑313, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2007.02.001.

Lonely in a Crowd: Cohort Size and Happiness in the United Kingdom

Abstract: Studies have shown that happiness level varies significantly across birth cohorts and baby boomers are the unhappiest of all birth cohorts. Yet, we don’t know if this is due to their large cohort size negatively affecting happiness. We question whether people born in high fertility times are unhappy because they suffer more from economic setbacks and/or social strains. Using 9 waves of data from the European Social Survey United Kingdom Subset 2002–2018 (N = 19,364) and hierarchical age-period-cohort cross-classified models, we analyze the effects of cohort size, socioeconomic status, marital status, and sociality on happiness. Cohort size, marital status, and sociality are the top three factors of cohort difference in happiness, but socioeconomic status is not. Cohort size is negatively associated with happiness. Income, education, or employment are not the source of unhappiness among the Boomers. Besides being members of a large cohort, the Boomers have two known factors against their odds: they are the most likely to separate and divorce and the least likely to socialize with friends despite having a large number of peers. Social disintegration and deprivation, not economic impoverishment, appears to be the culprit of unhappiness of the UK Baby Boomers.

Yiwan Ye et Xiaoling Shu, « Lonely in a Crowd: Cohort Size and Happiness in the United Kingdom », Journal of Happiness Studies, 19 janvier 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-021-00495-x.

Gender Inequality and Job Satisfaction in Senegal: A Multiple Mediation Model

Abstract: Women are often found to be in inferior jobs with lower wages and lower job quality, but to report higher job satisfaction. This gender-job satisfaction paradox is documented for high-income countries and is explained by gender inequality in job quality and expectations. In this paper we document this paradox for a developing country. We explore the complex relationship between gender, job quality and job satisfaction among agro-industry workers in Senegal, using primary data from a comprehensive worker survey. We use a multiple mediation model to disentangle direct and indirect pathways through which gender relates to job satisfaction. We find that women’s job satisfaction is higher, despite earning lower wages, receiving fewer nonwage benefits, being more in casual employment, and working fewer hours than men. Moreover, job satisfaction varies more strongly with gender than with worker education, wages or other job quality characteristics. We find that gender inequality in job quality mitigates the positive relationship between gender and job satisfaction, with wage and nonwage benefits as major mediating variables. Our findings imply opposing direct and indirect gender effects on job satisfaction, and bring some nuance in the debate on how reducing gender inequality in job quality may affect women’s job satisfaction.

Anna Fabry, Goedele Van den Broeck, et Miet Maertens, « Gender Inequality and Job Satisfaction in Senegal: A Multiple Mediation Model », Journal of Happiness Studies, 24 janvier 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00498-2

Participation in socio-cultural activities and subjective well-being of natives and migrants: evidence from Germany and the UK

Abstract: Within the diverse populations characterizing the modern society, it is essential to explore the experiences of multicultural individuals and their subjective well-being. The aim of this study is to explore the participation of migrants in socio-cultural activities related to arts, theatre, concerts and sports events and its role in their subjective well-being (SWB). The empirical analysis relies on data derived from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) Survey over the period 1984–2017 and the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) covering the period 2010–2013. We apply panel data models to explore and compare the impact of the participation in socio-cultural activities on subjective well-being between first-generation immigrants and natives. Furthermore, based on the available information, we extend the analysis to consider the 2.5 and second-generation immigrants. The findings show that first-generation immigrants report lower levels of SWB compared to natives. We find no differences in the SWB between natives and the 2.5 generation migrants in Germany, while second-generation migrants report on average higher levels of SWB than natives do. On the other hand, all migrant generations we explore in the UK present lower levels of SWB, while participation in socio-cultural activities improves the SWB of both natives and migrants. Moreover, our findings suggest that socio-cultural participation reduces the SWB gap between natives and immigrants, indicating that socio-cultural integration can be an alternative policy of creating inclusive, secure and happier communities.

Eleftherios Giovanis, « Participation in Socio-Cultural Activities and Subjective Well-Being of Natives and Migrants: Evidence from Germany and the UK », International Review of Economics 68, no 4 (1 décembre 2021): 423‑63, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12232-021-00377-x

Women are “hardworking”, men are “brilliant”: Stereotyping in the economics job market

Abstract: Academia faces increased scrutiny because of its gender imbalance. This column uses machine learning methods to analyse gendered patterns in the text of reference letters written for candidates for entry-level positions in the economics job market. The findings reveal that women are systematically more likely to be praised for being hardworking and at times less likely to be praised for their ability. Given the time and effort letter writers devote to supporting their students, the authors suggest this gender stereotype is likely due to unconscious biases.

Markus Eberhardt, Giovanni Facchini, et Valeria Rueda, « Women are “hardworking”, men are “brilliant”: Stereotyping in the economics job market », VoxEU.org (blog), 8 février 2022, https://voxeu.org/article/stereotyping-economics-job-market

Teleworking is here to stay and may raise productivity if implemented appropriately

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a surge in teleworking, raising questions about its persistence as well as its impact on firm performance and worker wellbeing. Leveraging real-time online job postings data from Indeed and a recent OECD survey of managers and workers, this column argues that teleworking is here to stay – for most workers in a hybrid mode with two or three working days per week at home. A majority of managers and workers value teleworking positively but emphasise the need for adaptive measures, such as the coordination of schedules and investment in ICT hardware, software, and skills.

Pawel Adrjan et al., « Teleworking is here to stay and may raise productivity if implemented appropriately », VoxEU.org (blog), 10 février 2022, https://voxeu.org/article/teleworking-here-stay-and-may-raise-productivity-if-implemented-appropriately

Understanding and Reducing Online Misinformation Across 16 Countries on Six Continents

Abstract: The spread of misinformation online is a global problem that requires global solutions. To that end, we conducted an experiment in 16 countries across 6 continents (N = 33,480) to investigate predictors of susceptibility to misinformation and interventions to combat misinformation. In every country, participants with a more analytic cognitive style and stronger accuracy-related motivations were better at discerning truth from falsehood; valuing democracy was also associated with greater truth discernment whereas political conservatism was negatively associated with truth discernment in most countries. Subtly prompting people to think about accuracy was broadly effective at improving the veracity of news that people were willing to share, as were minimal digital literacy tips. Finally, crowdsourced accuracy evaluation was able to differentiate true from false headlines with high accuracy in all countries. The consistent patterns we observe suggest that the psychological factors underlying the misinformation challenge are similar across the globe, and that similar solutions may be broadly effective.

Antonio Alonso Arechar et al., « Understanding and Reducing Online Misinformation Across 16 Countries on Six Continents » (PsyArXiv, 11 février 2022), https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/a9frz

Satisfaction et privation matérielle et sociale en 2021

En France métropolitaine, la crise sanitaire liée à la Covid-19 qui a débuté en mars 2020 est encore très présente en 2021. Les changements de mode de vie et l’anxiété liée à la pandémie ont entraîné une chute de la satisfaction générale dans la vie sans précédent. Son niveau moyen s’établit à 6,8 sur 10 au début de l’année 2021, contre 7,3 en 2019 et 7,2 en 2020 (mesuré essentiellement avant le premier confinement). C’est le plus bas niveau déclaré depuis que la satisfaction dans la vie est mesurée, soit depuis 2010. Dans le même temps, les contraintes sur les activités sociales payantes du fait de la crise sanitaire ont réduit les privations : 10,9 % des personnes sont pauvres au sens non monétaire, selon l’indicateur européen de privation matérielle et sociale, contre 13,1 % en 2019 et en 2020. Ce recul des privations s’explique plus par l’impossibilité de pouvoir participer à des activités que par une diminution effective des difficultés financières.

François Gleizes, Stéphane Legleye, et Anne Pla, « Satisfaction et privation matérielle et sociale en 2021 », Insee Focus, no 261 (18 février 2022), https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/6051365

Demography and Well-being

Abstract: Demography studies the characteristics of populations. One such characteristic is well-being: this was the subject of the 2019 Wittgenstein Conference. Here, I discuss how objective well-being domains can be summarised to produce an overall well-being score, and how taking self-reported (subjective) well-being into account may help in this effort. But given that there is more than one type of subjective well-being score, we would want to know which one is “best”. We would also need to decide whose well-being counts, or counts more than that of others. Finally, I briefly mention the potential role of adaptation and social comparisons in the calculation of societal well-being.

Andrew Clark, « Demography and Well-being », PSE-Ecole d’économie de Paris (Postprint) (HAL, 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/halpseptp/halshs-03467198.htm

Life Satisfaction and the Human Development Index Across the World

Abstract: We use annual data on over 150 countries between 2005 and 2018 to look at the relationship between subjective well-being (both cognitive and affective) and the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI appears to be more closely related to cognitive than affective well-being. We also consider the relationships between the three HDI components (the Income, Health, and Education Indices) and well-being, and find that, on average, the Income Index has the strongest predictive power. Importantly, we find that the three HDI components only matter equally in Western and rich countries. Our analysis contributes to the discussion about cultural sensitivity in paradigms of societal development in two ways. We first show that differences in preferences toward development aims exist. Second, we propose a weighting procedure for a culturally-sensitive version of the HDI.

Remi Yin et al., « Life Satisfaction and the Human Development Index Across the World », PSE-Ecole d’économie de Paris (Postprint) (HAL, 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/halpseptp/halshs-03467218.htm

COVID-19 infections, labour market shocks, and subjective well-being

Abstract: This is the first paper to present novel findings on how simultaneously (a) labour market shocks and (b) infections in the household, directly due to COVID-19, have impacted on life satisfaction and domain satisfactions. Using data from a world-wide online survey of almost 5,700 respondents across six countries, we estimate the associations of COVID-19-related labour market shocks and COVID-19 infection with life satisfaction and a range of domain satisfactions. Directly due to COVID-19, experiencing either (i) a reduction in salary and working hours, or (ii) unemployment or filing for unemployment benefits is significantly associated with lower reported satisfaction with family life, family health, available health services, and finances. The relationship is especially large for financial satisfaction. Reporting any COVID-19 labour market shock is also related to lower life satisfaction. Persons in households that have experienced a COVID-19 infection report significantly lower satisfaction with life, health, family life, and finances. Noteworthy is that labour market shocks are much more important in explaining subjective well-being compared to COVID-19 infections. The findings highlight the wide range of subjective well-being domains adversely affected by shocks to the labour market and health brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Ferdi Botha et John P. de New, « COVID-19 infections, labour market shocks, and subjective well-being », Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne, août 2020), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/iaeiaewps/wp2020n14.htm

Causality in the Link between Income and Satisfaction: IV Estimation with Internal Instruments

Usually, it is expected that income increases life satisfaction. In recent years tough, research emerged that shows how subjective well-being, including satisfaction, influences objective measures, as for example income. This would then require explicit identification strategies for estimating effects of income on life satisfaction. I address this issue using German SOEP data and Lewbel’s (2012) method, which generates instruments from heteroscedasticity. This allows identification of two separate causal effects in the link between income and life satisfaction: (1) income affecting satisfaction and (2) satisfaction affecting income. This analysis focuses on life satisfaction and equivalized income, because this is the income measure most welfare analyses use to assess utility of income. Results show no significant effects of income on life satisfaction, but effects of satisfaction on income. This suggest that the effect of income on life satisfaction may be overstated in standard approaches that do not account for this reverse causality – possibly due to reverse causality, which is likely rooted in response behavior, rather than income generation.

Susanne Elsas, « Causality in the Link between Income and Satisfaction: IV Estimation with Internal Instruments », SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research (DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/diwdiwsop/diw_5fsp1143.htm

Human well-being in the Anthropocene: limits to growth

Abstract: Transforming the world towards sustainability in line with the 2030 Agenda requires progress on multiple dimensions of human well-being. We track development of relevant indicators for SDGs 1-7 against GDP per person in seven world regions and the world as a whole. Across the regions, we find uniform development patterns where SDGs 1-7-and therefore main human needs-are reached at around US$15 000 measured in 2011 US$ purchasing power parity (PPP).

David Collste et al., « Human well-being in the Anthropocene: limits to growth », Post-Print (HAL, 9 décembre 2021), https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/haljournl/hal-03481110.htm

The relationship between quality of the working environment, workers’ health and well-being, Evidence from 28 OECD countries

Abstract: This paper operationalises the OECD Guidelines for Measuring the Quality of the Working Environment (OECD, 2017) to describe job characteristics among European countries, the United States and Korea in 2010 and 2015. The analysis extends the range of aspects of quality of the working environment beyond those featuring in the Job Strain index presented by (Cazes, 2015), which is used to monitor implementation of the OECD Job Strategy, but at the cost of a more limited country coverage. While the two indices of job strain are largely consistent both across countries and over time, all of the job characteristics included in the “extended” index turns out to matter for workers’ well-being. The framework uses the job demands-resources model ( (Demerouti, 2001) that stresses the importance of balancing the demands of the job and the resources that are available to workers to meet those demands. Workers are classified as (heavily) strained when the number of job demands they face (largely) exceeds the number of job resources they benefit from, and conversely, they are classified as (very) well-resourced when their job resources (largely) exceed their job demands. On average among 28 OECD countries, about one third of employees are (moderately or heavily) strained at work, while one half are well-resourced. The share of employees that are heavily strained is close to 10%. Job strain is relatively more frequent among employees with low education and low occupational skills, and it is relatively less frequent in the service sector and in the public sector. Due to composition effects, women hold on average slightly less strained jobs than men. The share of strained workers has slightly declined on average over the 2010-2015 period, falling in a majority of countries. The improvement in working conditions is related to better prospects of career advancement, higher take-up of training, stronger social support and organisational participation at work, higher flexibility of working time, as well as lower exposure to physical risk factors, hard physical demands and unsocial work schedule. On the other hand, perceptions of job insecurity, intimidation and discrimination, as well as work intensity have been on the rise. Finally, quality of the working environment is strongly associated with workers’ well-being as measured by mental and physical health, days of sickness, job satisfaction as well as job motivation, and the associated effects are potentially large. For most outcomes, perceived intimidation and discrimination at work is one of the most powerful predictor of workers’ well-being.

Murtin, F., et al. (2022), “The relationship between quality of the working environment, workers’ health and well-being : Evidence from 28 OECD countries”, OECD Papers on Well-being and Inequalities, n° 04, Éditions OCDE, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/c3be1162-en

Earmarked paternity leave increases parental wellbeing

Abstract: Earmarked paternity leave has been introduced in many countries, often with the aim of increasing mothers’ labour market participation. Multiple studies have documented limited, if any, effect, on this especially in the long run, but the policy’s wider impact on parental wellbeing has received less attention. This column uses detailed data on life satisfaction in Europe to show that paternity leave quotas have a positive effect on both mothers’ and fathers’ wellbeing. This uplift disproportionately benefits mothers and is driven by improvements to satisfaction within the home, not the workplace.

Pontus Korsgren et Max Van Lent, « Earmarked paternity leave increases parental wellbeing », VoxEU.org (blog), 19 février 2022, https://voxeu.org/article/earmarked-paternity-leave-increases-parental-wellbeing